C# Programming Pdf Free

Posted on  by admin
C c
(See below)
Writing systemLatin script
Language of originLatin language
Phonetic usage
Unicode codepointU+0043, U+0063
Alphabetical position3
Numerical value: 3
            • C or Do is the first note of the C majorscale, the third note of the A minor scale (the relative minor of C major), and the fourth note (G, A, B, C) of the Guidonian hand, commonly pitched around 261.63 Hz.
Variations(See below)
Associated numbers3
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
Historically, concert pitch has varied.

For an instrument in equal temperament tuned to the A440 pitch standard widely adopted in 1939, middle C has a frequency around 261.63 Hz (for other notes see piano key frequencies).


Old Latin
C (G)

Scientific pitch was originally proposed in 1713 by French physicist Joseph Sauveur and based on the numerically convenient frequency of 256 Hz for middle C, all C's being powers of two. After the A440 pitch standard was adopted by musicians, the Acoustical Society of America published new frequency tables for scientific use. A movement to restore the older A435 standard has used the banners "Verdi tuning", "philosophical pitch" or the easily confused scientific pitch.

MiddleC (the fourth C key from left on a standard 88-key piano keyboard) is designated C4 in scientific pitch notation, and c′ in Helmholtz pitch notation; it is note number 60 in MIDI notation.[1]. While the expression Middle C is generally clear across instruments and clefs, some musicians naturally use the term to refer to the C note in the middle of their specific instrument's range. C4 may be called Low C by someone playing a Western concert flute, which has a higher and narrower playing range than the piano, while C5 (523.251 Hz) would be Middle C. This technically inaccurate practice has led some pedagogues to encourage standardizing on C4 as the definitive Middle C in instructional materials across all instruments.[2]. On the Grand Staff, MiddleC is notated with a ledger line above the top line of the bass staff or below the bottom line of the treble staff.

Alternatively, it is written on the centre line of a staff using the alto clef, or on the fourth line from the bottom, or the second line from the top, of staves using the tenor clef.

Operator precedence[edit]

In vocal music, the term High C (sometimes less ambiguously called Top C[3]) can refer to either the soprano's C6 (1046.502 Hz; c′′′ in Helmholtz notation) or the tenor's C5; both are written as the C two ledger lines above the treble clef but the tenor voice sings an octave lower. The term Low C is sometimes used in vocal music to refer to C2 because this is considered the divide between true basses and bass-baritones: a basso can sing this note easily, whereas other male voices, including bass-baritones, typically cannot. Tenor C is an organ builder's term for small C or C3 (130.813 Hz), the note one octave below Middle C. In older stoplists it usually means that a rank wasn't yet full compass, omitting the bottom octave, until that Bottom Octave was added later on.

Note that for a classical piano and musical theory, the middle C is usually labelled as C4; However, in the MIDI standard definition (like the one used in Apple's GarageBand), this middle C (261.626 Hz) is labelled C3. In practice, a MIDI software can label middle C (261.626 Hz) as C3-C5, which can cause confusion, especially for beginners. The frequencies given in this table are based on the standard that A=440Hz and with equal temperament. Middle C in four clefs. Position of Middle C on a standard 88-key keyboard. C Major: C D E F G A B C. C Natural Minor: C D E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C. C Harmonic Minor: C D E♭ F G A♭ B C. C Melodic Minor Ascending: C D E♭ F G A B C. C Melodic Minor Descending: C B♭ A♭ G F E♭ D C. C Ionian: C D E F G A B C. C Dorian: C D E♭ F G A B♭ C. C Phrygian: C D♭ E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C. C Lydian: C D E F♯ G A B C. C Mixolydian: C D E F G A B♭ C. C Aeolian: C D E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C. C Locrian: C D♭ E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ C. C Ascending Melodic Minor: C D E♭ F G A B C. C Dorian ♭2: C D♭ E♭ F G A B♭ C. C Lydian Augmented: C D E F♯ G♯ A B C. C Lydian Dominant: C D E F♯ G A B♭ C. C Mixolydian ♭6: C D E F G A♭ B♭ C. C Locrian ♮2: C D E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ C. C Altered: C D♭ E♭ F♭ G♭ A♭ B♭ C. ^"MIDI Note/Key Number Chart", computermusicresource.com. ^Large, John (February 1981). "Theory in Practice: Building a Firm Foundation". Music Educators Journal. Schonberg (November 4, 1979). "Birgit Nilsson – The Return of a Super-Soprano". The New York Times. ^"The Note That Makes Us Weep" by Daniel J. Wakin, The New York Times, September 9, 2007. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=C_(musical_note)&oldid=1085480627". Publication date. The C Programming Language (sometimes termed K&R, after its authors' initials) is a computer programming book written by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the latter of whom originally designed and implemented the language, as well as co-designed the Unix operating system with which development of the language was closely intertwined.

The book was central to the development and popularization of the C programming language and is still widely read and used today. Because the book was co-authored by the original language designer, and because the first edition of the book served for many years as the de facto standard for the language, the book was regarded by many to be the authoritative reference on C.[1][2]. C was created by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in the early 1970s as an augmented version of Ken Thompson's B.[3]Another Bell Labs employee, Brian Kernighan, had written the first C tutorial,[4]and he persuaded Ritchie to coauthor a book on the language.[5]Kernighan would write most of the book's "expository" material, and Ritchie's reference manual became its appendices.


Pronunciations of Cc
Most common pronunciation: /k/

Languages in italics do not use the Latin alphabet

LanguageDialect(s)Pronunciation (IPA)EnvironmentNotes
ArabicCypriot Arabic/ʕ/Latinization
/s/Before e, i
Crimean Tatar/dʒ/
Cornish/s/Standard Written Form
/s/Before e, i, y, æ, ø
/s/Before e, i, y
/tʃ/Before e, i,yin loanwords from Italian
/s/Before e, i, y
/s/Before e, i
/s/Before e, i, y
/θ/Before e, i
/s/Before e, iin seseo zones
/c/Before e, i; or after i
/tʃ/Before e, i
MandarinStandard/tsʰ/Pinyin latinization
/s/Before e, i, y
Romanian/tʃ/Before e, i
Romansh/ts/Before e, i
Scottish Gaelic/kʰ/
/kʰʲ/Before e, i; or after i
Most of European/θ/Before e, i, y
American, Andalusian, Canarian/s/Before e, i, y
/s/Before e, i, y, ä, ö
/s/Before e, i
/kp/Word-final after u, ô, o

Memory management[edit]

The first edition, published February 22, 1978, was the first widely available book on the C programming language. Its version of C is sometimes termed K&R C (after the book's authors), often to distinguish this early version from the later version of C standardized as ANSI C.[6]. In April 1988, the second edition of the book was published, updated to cover the changes to the language resulting from the then-new ANSI C standard, particularly with the inclusion of reference material on standard libraries.

The second edition of the book (and as of 2022, the most recent) has since been translated into over 20 languages. In 2012, an eBook version of the second edition was published in ePub, Mobi, and PDF formats.

ANSI C, first standardized in 1989 (as ANSI X3.159-1989), has since undergone several revisions, the most recent of which is ISO/IEC 9899:2018 (also termed C17 or C18), adopted as an ANSI standard in June 2018. However, no new edition of The C Programming Language has been issued to cover the more recent standards.

Byte magazine stated in August 1983, "[The C Programming Language] is the definitive work on the C language.

Don't read any further until you have this book!" [1]Jerry Pournelle wrote in the magazine that year that the book "is still the standard ..

Octave nomenclature[edit]

He continued, "You can learn the C language without getting Kernighan and Ritchie, but that's doing it the hard way. You're also working too hard if you make it the only book on C that you buy." The C Programming Language has often been cited as a model for technical writing, with reviewers describing it as having clear presentation and concise treatment.

Examples generally consist of complete programs of the type one is likely to encounter in daily use of the language, with an emphasis on system programming. Its authors said. We have tried to retain the brevity of the first edition. C is not a big language, and it is not well served by a big book. We have improved the exposition of critical features, such as pointers, that are central to C programming. We have refined the original examples, and have added new examples in several chapters. For instance, the treatment of complicated declarations is augmented by programs that convert declarations into words and vice versa.

As before, all examples have been tested directly from the text, which is in machine-readable form. program by Brian Kernighan (1978). The book introduced the "Hello, World!" program, which prints only the text "hello, world", as an illustration of a minimal working C program. Since then, many texts have followed that convention for introducing a programming language. Before the advent of ANSI C, the first edition of the text served as the de facto standard of the language for writers of C compilers.

With the standardization of ANSI C, the authors more consciously wrote the second edition for programmers rather than compiler writers, saying. Appendix A, the reference manual, is not the standard, but our attempt to convey the essentials of the standard in a smaller space. It is meant for easy comprehension by programmers, but not as a definition for compiler writers—that role properly belongs to the standard itself. Appendix B is a summary of the facilities of the standard library. It too is meant for reference by programmers, not implementers. Appendix C is a concise summary of the changes from the original version.

— preface to the second edition[8]. The influence of The C Programming Language on programmers, a generation of whom first worked with C in universities and industry, has led many to accept the authors' programming style and conventions as recommended practice, if not normative practice.


For example, the coding and formatting style of the programs presented in both editions of the book is often referred to as "K&R style" or the "One True Brace Style" and became the coding style used by convention in the source code for the Unix and Linuxkernels.

Hosting Organization

^ abWard, Terry A. "Annotated C / A Bibliography of the C Language". Retrieved 31 January 2015. ^Prinz, Peter; Crawford, Tony (2005-12-16). C in a Nutshell.

O'Reilly Media, Inc. ^Ritchie, Dennis M. "The Development of the C Language". History of Programming Languages, 2nd Edition. Retrieved 2018-11-11. ^"Leap In and Try Things: Interview with Brian Kernighan". Harmony at Work. October 24, 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-03. ^Computerphile (2015-08-18). "'C' Programming Language: Brian Kernighan - Computerphile". Archived from the original on 2021-12-21.



Retrieved 2018-11-11. ^Kernighan, Brian W.; Ritchie, Dennis M.
  • (February 1978). The C Programming Language (1st ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ^Pournelle, Jerry (December 1983). "The User Looks at Books". Retrieved 24 July 2016. ^ abKernighan, Brian; Ritchie, Dennis M. The C Programming Language (2nd ed.).
  • Ç or ç (C-cedilla) is a Latin script letter, used in the Albanian, Azerbaijani, Manx, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Kurdish, Zazaki, and Romancealphabets.
  • It is often retained in the spelling of loanwords from any of these languages in English, Basque, Dutch, Spanish and other Latin script spelled languages.
  • It was first used for the sound of the voiceless alveolar affricate/t͡s/ in Old Spanish and stems from the Visigothic form of the letter z (Ꝣ).
  • The phoneme originated in Vulgar Latin from the palatalization of the plosives /t/ and /k/ in some conditions.
  • Later, /t͡s/ changed into /s/ in many Romance languages and dialects. Spanish has not used the symbol since an orthographic reform in the 18th century (which replaced ç with the now-devoiced z), but it was adopted for writing other languages.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /ç/ represents the voiceless palatal fricative.

  • Evolution from Visigoth Z to modern Ç. In many languages, ⟨ç⟩ represents the "soft" sound /s/ where a ⟨c⟩ would normally represent the "hard" sound /k/.
  • Known as ce trencada ('broken C') in this language, where it can be used before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ or at the end of a word.

Distinguishing features[edit]

  • Some examples of words with ⟨ç⟩ are amenaça ('menace'), torçat ('twisted'), xoriço ('chorizo'), forçut ('strong'), dolç ('sweet') and caça ('hunting').
  • A well-known word with this character is Barça, a common Catalan clipping of Futbol Club Barcelona.
  • French (cé cédille): français ('French'), garçon ('boy'), façade ('frontage'), grinçant ('squeaking'), leçon ('lesson'), reçu ('received' [past participle]).
  • French does not use the character at the end of a word but it can occur at the beginning of a word (e.g., ça, 'that').[1] It is never used in French where C would denote /s/.
  • Occitan (ce cedilha): torçut ('twisted'), çò ('this'), ça que la ('nevertheless'), braç ('arm'), brèç ('cradle'), voraç ('voracious').
  • It can occur at the beginning of a word.
  • Portuguese (cê-cedilha, cê de cedilha or cê cedilhado): it is used before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩: taça ('cup'), braço ('arm'), açúcar ('sugar').
  • Modern Portuguese does not use the character at the beginning or at the end of a word (the nickname for Conceição is São, not Ção). According to a Portuguese grammar written in 1550, the letter ç had the sound of /dz/ around that time. Another grammar written around 1700 would say that the letter ç sounds like /s/, which shows a phonetic evolution that is still valid today.
  • Old Spanish used ç to represent /t͡s/ before /a/, /o/, /u/.
  • It also represented /d͡z/ allophonically when it occurred before a voiced consonant. Early Modern Spanish used the letter ç to represent either /θ/ or /s/ before /a/, /o/, and /u/ in much the same way as Modern Spanish uses the letter z.


Middle Castilian Spanish pronounced ç as /θ/, or as /ð/ before a voiced consonant.

Character information
Numeric character referenceCCcc
EBCDIC family195C313183
1Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Andalusian, Canarian, and Latin American Spanish pronounced ç as /s/, or as /z/ before a voiced consonant.


NATO phoneticMorse code
▄▄▄ ▄ ▄▄▄ ▄
Signal flagFlag semaphoreAmerican manual alphabet (ASLfingerspelling)British manual alphabet (BSLfingerspelling)Braille dots-14
Unified English Braille


A spelling reform in the 18th century eliminated ç from Spanish orthography. In other languages, it represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate/t͡ʃ/ (like ⟨ch⟩ in English chalk):.

Standardization and licensing[edit]

  • Friulian (c cun cedilie) before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ or at the end of a word.

External links[edit]

  1. Turkish and Azerbaijani alphabets: çelik ('steel') and çamur ('mud'). In Manx, it is used in the digraph ⟨çh⟩, which also represents /t͡ʃ/, to differentiate it from normal ⟨ch⟩, which represents /x/.
  2. In Basque, ⟨ç⟩ (known as ze hautsia) is used in the loanword curaçao. In Dutch, it can be found in some words from French and Portuguese, such as façade, reçu, Provençaals and Curaçao.
  3. In English, ⟨ç⟩ is used in loanwords such as façade and limaçon (although the cedilla mark is often dropped: ⟨facade⟩, ⟨limacon⟩). It represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate/t͡ʃ/ in the following languages:.
  4. the 4th letter of the Albanian alphabet. the 4th letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet.
  5. the 4th letter of the Turkish alphabet. the 3rd letter of the Turkmen alphabet. the 4th letter of the Kurmanji alphabet (also known as Northern Kurdish).
  6. the 4th letter of the Zazaki alphabet. In the 2020 version of the Latin Kazakh Alphabet, the letter represents the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate/tɕ/, which is similar to /t͡ʃ/.
  7. It previously represented a voiceless palatal click/ǂ/ in Juǀʼhoansi and Naro, though the former has replaced it with ⟨ǂ⟩ and the latter with ⟨tc⟩.
  8. The similarly shaped letter the (Ҫ ҫ) is used in the Cyrillic alphabets of Bashkir and Chuvash to represent /θ/ and /ɕ/, respectively.
  9. In Tatar, ç represents /ɕ/. It also represents the retroflex flap/ɽ/ in the Rohingya Latin alphabet. Janalif uses this letter to represent the voiced postalveolar affricate/d͡ʒ/. Old Malay uses ç to represent /dʒ/ and /ɲ/.


Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article "C".
  • On Albanian, Belgian, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish and Italian keyboards, Ç is directly available as a separate key; however, on most other keyboards, including the US and British keyboard, a combination of keys must be used:.
  • In the US-International keyboard layout, these are ' followed by either C or ⇧ Shift+C.
  • Alternatively one may press AltGr+, or AltGr+⇧ Shift+,.
In classic Mac OS and macOS, these are ⌥ Opt+C and ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+C for lower- and uppercase, respectively.