F 98 Fighter

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F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
U.S. Navy F/A-18F Super Hornet
RoleCarrier-based multirole fighter
National originUnited States
ManufacturerMcDonnell Douglas
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
First flight29 November 1995
Introduction1999[1][2]
2001 (IOC)[3]
StatusIn service
Primary usersUnited States Navy
Royal Australian Air Force
Kuwait Air Force
Produced1995–present
Number built608+ as of April 2020[4]
Developed fromMcDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet
VariantsBoeing EA-18G Growler

The McDonnell XF-88 Voodoo was a long-range, twinjetfighter aircraft with swept wings designed for the United States Air Force. Although it never entered production, its design was adapted for the subsequent supersonic F-101 Voodoo.

The XF-88 originated from a 1946 United States Army Air Forces requirement for a long-range "penetration fighter" to escort bombers to their targets. It was to be essentially a jet-powered replacement for the wartime North American P-51 Mustang that had escorted Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers over Germany.

It was to have a combat radius of 900 mi (1,450 km) and high performance. McDonnell began work on the aircraft, dubbed Model 36, on 1 April 1946. On 20 June the company was given a contract for two prototypes designated XP-88.[1]Dave Lewis was Chief of Aerodynamics on this project.[2]. The engineering team stands after Flight 100. Supersonic jet-turboprop hybrid XF-88B. Landing the XF-88B. The initial design was intended to have straight wings and a V-shaped tail, but wind tunnel tests indicated aerodynamic problems that led to a conventional tailplane being substituted and the wings being swept.[1][3] The USAAF confirmed the order for the two prototypes on 14 February 1947,[4] while a change in designation schemes led to the unflown prototypes being re-designated XF-88 on 1 July 1948, with the type gaining the nickname "Voodoo".[1].

Specifications (F-89D)[edit]

Design and development[edit]

The Voodoo had a low/mid-mounted wing, swept to 35°. The two engines, specified as Westinghouse J34turbojets were in the lower fuselage, fed by air intakes in the wing roots and jetpipes beneath the rear fuselage. This made room in the long fuselage for the fuel tanks required for the required long range. The Voodoo's short nose had no radar, being intended to house an armament of six 20 mm (.79 in) M39 cannon, while the fighter's single pilot sat in a pressurized cockpit and was provided with an ejection seat.[5][6].

The first XF-88 made its maiden flight from Muroc Field on 20 October 1948, piloted by McDonnell Chief Test Pilot Robert Edholm.[7][1] It was unarmed and powered by non-afterburning J34-13 engines that gave 3,000 lbf (13.37 kN) thrust.[1] While testing demonstrated adequate handling and the required endurance, the XF-88 proved to be underpowered. This resulted in inadequate performance, with its maximum speed of 641 mph being less than the F-86A then in production.[4] In order to improve performance, it was decided to fit the second prototype's engines with McDonnell-designed afterburners.[8] Thus modified, the engines became J34-22s, giving 3,600 lbf (16.05 kN) thrust.[4] The second prototype, XF-88A, made its maiden flight on 26 April 1949, with the first prototype later modified to the same standard.[8].

The afterburners improved the Voodoo's performance, with the XF-88A reaching 700 mph (1,126 km/h) but at the expense of decreased range owing to increased fuel consumption.[9] Despite this, the XF-88 was chosen against the Lockheed XF-90 and North American YF-93 for the USAF's Penetration Fighter requirement, with planned production versions to use more powerful Westinghouse J46 engines.[8] (A 1948 order for 118 F-93s had been cancelled in 1949.[10]) Changes in Air Force priorities, together with a shortage of money, led the penetration fighter to be cancelled in August 1950.[11]. The first prototype was modified to XF-88B standard as a propeller-research vehicle. The model propeller[12] was driven by a nose-mounted Allison T38turboprop which was used to assist in the climb as well as to reach the test conditions.

The aircraft was used to test three propellers through 1956,[8] to speeds slightly exceeding Mach 1.0,[13] the first propeller-equipped aircraft to do so.[8] The propeller was tested in level flight to about M 0.9 with the help of the turbojet afterburners, and to just over M 1.0 in a dive.[12].

McDonnell also proposed a naval version of the XF-88, a two-seat operational trainer, and a reconnaissance variant but none were built.[8] Both prototypes were scrapped by 1958.[8]. Experience of the Korean War led the USAF to reconsider its plans for penetration fighters and led to a new specification for a long-range fighter, General Operational Requirement (GOR) 101 being issued in February 1951. A considerably enlarged version of the design was chosen to meet this requirement later that year, the revised design becoming the F-101 Voodoo,[3][14] the first production version of which flew on 29 September 1954.[15]. Data from McDonnell Douglas aircraft since 1920 : Volume II,[16] Fighters of the United States Air Force[17]. General characteristics. Length: 54 ft 1.5 in (16.497 m). Wingspan: 39 ft 8 in (12.09 m). Height: 17 ft 3 in (5.26 m). Wing area: 350 sq ft (33 m2).

Operational history[edit]

Airfoil:NACA 65-009[18]. Empty weight: 12,140 lb (5,507 kg).

Gross weight: 18,500 lb (8,391 kg). Max takeoff weight: 23,100 lb (10,478 kg). Powerplant: 2 × Westinghouse J34-WE-15afterburning turbojet engines, 3,600 lbf (16 kN) thrust each dry, 4,825 lbf (21.46 kN) with afterburner. Powerplant: 1 × Allison XT38-A-5turboprop engine, 2,750 shp (2,050 kW) equivalent - (2,550 shp (1,900 kW) + 415 lbf (1.85 kN)) - XF-88B. Propellers: 2, 3 and 4-bladed constant-speed supersonic propellers, 4 ft (1.2 m) diameter to 10 ft (3.0 m) diameter, operating at 1,700 rpm, 3,600 rpm or 6,000 rpm XF-88B. Maximum speed: 706 mph (1,136 km/h, 613 kn) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m).

Cruise speed: 527 mph (848 km/h, 458 kn). Range: 1,737 mi (2,795 km, 1,509 nmi). Service ceiling: 39,400 ft (12,000 m). Rate of climb: 8,000 ft/min (41 m/s). Time to altitude: 35,000 ft (11,000 m) in 4 minutes 30 seconds. Wing loading: 52.9 lb/sq ft (258 kg/m2). Thrust/weight: 0.323. Guns: 6 × 20 mm (0.787 in) M39 cannon. Related development. Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era. ^ abcdefDorr 1995, p. ^Martin, Douglas. Lewis, 86, Executive Who Led General Dynamics". The New York Times, 18 December 2003. Retrieved 8 May 2011. ^ abPeacock 1985, p. ^ abcFrancillon 1979, p.

^Francillon 1979, pp. ^Angelucci and Bowers 1987, pp. ^Knaack 1978, p. ^ abcdefghiDorr 1995, p. ^Angelucci and Bowers 1987, p. ^Dorr and Donald 1990, p.

^Knaack 1978, p. ^ abhttps://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19930090296.pdf p.9. ^"NASA History pages". Retrieved 2007-09-04. ^Knaack 1978, pp 135–136. ^Peacock 1985, p. ^Francillon, René J. McDonnell Douglas aircraft since 1920 : Volume II (2nd ed.). London: Putnam Aeronautical. ^Dorr and Donald 1990, p. ^Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019. Angelucci, Enzo and Peter Bowers. The American Fighter. Sparkford, Somerset, UK: Haynes Publishing Group, 1987. Dorr, Robert F. "McDonnell F-88/F-101 Variant Briefing". Wings of Fame, Volume 1. London: Aerospace Publishing, 1995. Dorr, Robert F. and Donald, David. Fighters of the United States Air Force. London: Temple, 1990. Francillon, René J.

Aircraft on display[edit]

McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920. London: Putnam, 1979. Knaack, Marcelle Size. Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems: Volume 1 Post-World War II Fighters, 1945-1973. Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1978. Peacock, Lindsay. "The One-O-Wonder". Air International, Volume 29, No. 2, August 1985, pp. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=McDonnell_XF-88_Voodoo&oldid=1028068269". THE KING OF FIGHTERS ’98 is an Arcade game developed by SNK CORPORATION. BlueStacks app player is the best platform (emulator) to play this Android game on your PC or Mac for an immersive gaming experience.

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After all, there is place for only one true king in fighting! The Northrop F-89 Scorpion was an American all-weather, twin-engined interceptor aircraft built during the 1950s, the first jet-powered aircraft designed for that role from the outset to enter service.[1] Though its straight wings limited its performance, it was among the first United States Air Force (USAF) jet fighters equipped with guided missiles and notably the first combat aircraft armed with air-to-air nuclear weapons (the unguided Genie rocket).

The Scorpion stemmed from a United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) Air Technical Service Command specification ("Military Characteristics for All-Weather Fighting Aircraft") for a night fighter to replace the P-61 Black Widow. The preliminary specification, sent to aircraft manufacturers on 28 August 1945, required two engines and an armament of six guns, either 0.60-inch (15 mm) machine guns or 20-millimetre (0.79 in) autocannon. The revised specification was issued on 23 November; it did not specify jet propulsion, but the desired maximum speed of 530 miles per hour (460 kn; 850 km/h) virtually dictated that all the submissions would be jet-powered. The aircraft was to be armed with aerial rockets stored internally and six guns split between two flexible mounts, four guns forward and two in the rear.

Overview[edit]

Each mount had to be capable of 15° of movement from the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Each mount's guns were to be automatically controlled by radar. For ground attack, it had to be capable of carrying 1,000-pound (454 kg) bombs and to be able to carry a minimum of eight rockets externally.[2]Bell Aircraft, Consolidated-Vultee, Douglas Aircraft, Goodyear, Northrop and Curtiss-Wright all submitted proposals. In March 1946, the USAAF selected the Curtiss-Wright XP-87 Blackhawk, adapted from their proposed XA-43attack aircraft and the Northrop N-24 design, one of four submitted by the company.[3]. The N-24, designed by Jack Northrop, was a slim-bodied swept-wing aircraft with a two-man pressurized cockpit and conventional landing gear.[4] To reduce drag, the two Allison J35turbojet engines were buried in the lower fuselage, directly behind their air intakes, and they exhausted underneath the rear fuselage.

The horizontal stabilizer was mounted just above the junction of the vertical stabilizer with the fuselage and had some dihedral.[5]. A contract for two aircraft, now designated the XP-89, and a full-scale mock-up was approved on 13 June, although construction of the mock-up had begun immediately after the USAAF announced that the N-24 had been selected. It was inspected on 25 September and the USAAF had some reservations. The inspectors believed that the radar operator needed to be moved forward, closer to the pilot, with both crewmen under a single canopy, the magnesium alloy components of the wing replaced by aluminum alloy, and the fuel tankage directly above the engines moved. Other changes had to be made as wind tunnel and other aerodynamic tests were conducted. The swept wings proved to be less satisfactory at low speeds, and a thin straight wing was selected instead.

Delivery of the first prototype was scheduled for November 1947, 14 months after the inspection.[6] The position of the horizontal stabilizer also proved to be unsatisfactory, as it was affected by the engine exhaust, and it would be "blanked-out" by airflow from the wing at high angles of attack. It was moved halfway up the tail, but its position flush with the leading edge of the vertical stabilizer proved to cause extra drag through turbulence and reduced the effectiveness of the elevators and rudder.

Moving the horizontal stabilizer forward solved the problem.[7] Another major change occurred when USAAF revised its specification to delete the rear gun installation on 8 October. Another inspection of the mock-up was held on 17 December, and the inspectors suggested only minor changes, even though the fuselage fuel tanks were still above the engines.

Variants[edit]

References[edit]

Northrop's efforts to protect the fuel tanks were considered sufficient, as the only alternative was to redesign the entire aircraft.[8].

The XP-89 had a thin, straight, mid-mounted wing and a crew of two, seated in tandem. The slim rear fuselage and the high-mounted horizontal stabilizer led Northrop employees calling it the Scorpion—a name later formally adopted by the Air Force.[4] The intended armament of four 20-millimeter M-24 cannon in a small nose turret was not ready when the XP-89 was completed in 1948.[9] Pending the availability of either of the two turrets under development, an interim six-gun fixed installation, with 200 rounds per gun, was designed for the underside of the nose. The thin wing had an aspect ratio of 5.88, a thickness-to-chord ratio of 9% and used a NACA 0009-64 section, which was selected for its low drag at high speed and stability at low speeds. A further advantage of the straight wing was that it could accommodate heavy weights at the wingtips.[10] The wing could not fit the circular-type (rotating) spoilerons used in the P-61, so Northrop used the "decelerons" designed for the unsuccessful XP-79prototype.

These were clamshell-style split ailerons, which could be used as conventional ailerons, as dive brakes, or function as flaps as needed.[11] All flying surfaces, the flaps and the landing gear were hydraulically powered. The thin wing dictated tall, thin, high-pressure (200 psi (1,379 kPa; 14 kgf/cm2)) mainwheel tires, while the low height of the fuselage required the use of dual wheels for the nose gear.[12]. The terms of the initial contract were revised and formalized on 21 May 1947 with the price increased to $5,571,111. The delivery date of the first aircraft was scheduled 14 months (July 1948) from signing and the second 2 months after that.

External links[edit]

A month before the prototype made its first flight on 16 August 1948 at Muroc Army Air Field, the USAF changed its designation for fighter aircraft from "P" to "F".[13] The XF-89 was fitted with 4,000 lbf (18 kN) Allison J35-A-9 turbojets and proved to be seriously underpowered.

Initial flights were made with conventional ailerons, decelerons not being installed until December.[12]. Several months earlier the Air Force conducted a competitive evaluation of the three existing all-weather interceptor prototypes, the XF-87, the XF-89, and the US Navy'sXF3D. The evaluators were qualified night-fighter pilots, radar operators, and experienced maintenance non-commissioned officers. The pilots were not impressed with any of the aircraft and recommended procurement of an interim aircraft that resulted in the development of the Lockheed F-94 Starfire from the training version of the Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star. The F-89 proved to be the fastest of the three contenders,[14] although it was in last place in cockpit arrangement and ease of maintenance.[9] One pilot claimed that the XF-89 was the only real fighter and compared the XF-87 to a medium bomber and the XF3D to a trainer.[14] The full Committee on Evaluation overruled those evaluators, preferring the Northrop design, as it had the greatest potential for development.

The Air Force subsequently canceled the production contract for the F-87 to free up money for the Scorpion.[12]. By November 1949 the second aircraft was virtually complete, but the Air Force was concerned about the design's poor thrust-to-weight ratio and decided to implement a weight-reduction program, as well as upgrading the engines to the more powerful Allison J33-A-21 fitted with an afterburner. Other major changes included the replacement of the nose gun turret by the Hughes-designed six-gun nose, AN/ARG-33 radar, and Hughes E-1fire-control system, permanent wing-tip fuel tanks, and the ability to lower the complete engine for better maintenance access.

Specifications (XF-88A)[edit]

The new nose added 3 feet (0.91 m) to the length of the aircraft. It was redesignated YF-89A to better reflect its role as a pre-production testbed to evaluate equipment and changes planned for the F-89A production aircraft.

The aircraft was essentially complete by February 1950.[15]. After repairs from a crash landing on 27 June 1949, the XF-89 was flown to March AFB to participate in the RKO movie Jet Pilot in February 1950. Shortly afterward, the aircraft crashed on 22 February, killing the observer, when flutter developed in the elevator and the subsequent vibrations caused the entire tail to break off. Construction of the production models was suspended until the reasons for the accident were discovered.

Engineering and wind-tunnel tests revealed that the geometry of the rear fuselage and the engine exhaust created flutter-inducing turbulence that was aggravated by the high-frequency acoustic energy from the exhaust.

Fixes for the problem involved the addition of a "jet wake fairing" at the bottom rear of the fuselage between the engines, external ("ice tong") mass balances for the elevator, pending the design of internal mass balances,[16] and the addition of exhaust deflectors to the fuselage to reduce the turbulence and the consequent flutter.[17]. Well before the YF-89A was complete, a $39,011,622 contract was awarded to Northrop on 13 May 1949 for 48 F-89A aircraft, one static test airframe and the modifications made to the YF-89A.[18].

Production was authorized in January 1949,[19] with the first production F-89A flying in September 1950. It had AN/APG-33 radar and an armament of six 20-millimeter T-31 cannon with 200 rounds per gun. The swiveling nose turret was abandoned, and 300-US-gallon (250 imp gal; 1,100 l) fuel tanks were permanently fitted to the wingtips. Underwing racks could carry 16 5-inch (130 mm) aerial rockets or up to 3,200 lb (1,451 kg) of bombs.[20]. Only 18 F-89As were completed, which were mainly used for tests and trials, before the type was upgraded to F-89B standard, with new avionics.[20] The type entered service with the 84th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron in June 1951,[21] experiencing considerable problems with engines and other systems, and soon gave way to the F-89C.

Despite repeated engine changes, problems persisted, compounded by the discovery of structural problems with the wings that led to the grounding of the F-89 and forced a refit of 194 -A, -B, and -C models.[22]. The major production model was the F-89D, which first flew 23 October 1951 and entered service in 1954.

Culture[edit]

It removed the cannon in favor of a new Hughes E-6 fire control system with AN/APG-40 radar and an AN/APA-84 computer. Armament was two pods of fifty-two 2.75-inch (70 mm) "Mighty Mouse" FFAR rockets.[23] A total of 682 were built.[24] In August 1956 a pair of F-89D interceptors were scrambled from Oxnard Air Force Base to shoot down a runaway F6F-5K drone leading to the so-called Battle of Palmdale.

Proposed re-engined F-89s, designated F-89E and F-89F, were not built, nor was a proposed F-89G that would have used Hughes MA-1 fire control and GAR-1/GAR-2 Falconair-to-air missiles like the Convair F-106 Delta Dart. F-89H showing its GAR-1/2 Falcon missiles extended from the wingtip pods. The subsequent F-89H, which entered service in 1956, had an E-9 fire control system like that of the early F-102 and massive new wingtip pods each holding three Falcons (usually three semi-active radar homing GAR-1s and three infrared GAR-2s) and 21 FFARs, for a total of six missiles and 42 rockets. Problems with the fire-control system delayed the -H's entry into service, by which time its performance was notably inferior to newer supersonic interceptors, so it was phased out of USAF service by 1959. The final variant was the F-89J.

This was based on the F-89D, but replaced the standard wingtip missile pod/tanks with 600-US-gallon (500 imp gal; 2,300 l) fuel tanks and fitted a pylon under each wing for a single MB-1 Genie nuclear rocket (sometimes supplemented by up to four conventional Falcon air-to-air missiles). The F-89J became the only aircraft to fire a live Genie as the John Shot of Operation Plumbbob on 19 July 1957. There were no new-build F-89Js, but 350 -Ds were modified to this standard. They served with the Air Defense Command, later renamed the Aerospace Defense Command (ADC), through 1959 and with ADC-gained units of the Air National Guard through 1969.

This version of the aircraft was extensively used within the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) air-defense system.[25]. A total of 1,050 Scorpions of all variants were produced. Northrop F-89J in 1972. F-89D, AF Serial No. 52-1862 (marked as 53-2453), on display at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson. F-89J, AF Serial No. 52-2129, on display at the Air Power Park and Museum in Hampton, Virginia. 49-2457 – Lakeview Park, Nampa, Idaho.[33]. 52-1862 – Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Marked as 53-2453 (actual 53-2453 is a F-89J below)[34] Previously displayed at Tyndall AFB, FLorida.[35]. 53-2463 – Museum of Aviation, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia.[36]. 53-2494 – home base of the 158th Fighter Wing, Vermont Air National Guard, Burlington Air National Guard Base, Vermont.[37]. 53-2517 – Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California. The rudder of 53-2519 was added to the aircraft at the museum.[38]. 53-2536 – EAA AirVenture Museum, Oshkosh, Wisconsin.[39]. 53-2610 – Air Force Armament Museum, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.[40]. 53-2646 – Friendship Park, Smithfield, Ohio.[41]. 53-2674 – Pima Air & Space Museum (adjacent to Davis-Monthan Air Force Base), Tucson, Arizona.[42].

53-2677 – Minnesota Air National Guard Museum, Minneapolis, Minnesota.[43]. 54-0298 – Dyess Linear Air Park, Dyess Air Force Base, Texas.[44].

Specifications (F-94C Starfire)[edit]

Development[edit]

54-0322 – Hill Aerospace Museum, Hill Air Force Base, Utah.[45].

52-1856 – Bangor International Airport / Bangor Air National Guard Base (former Dow AFB), Maine.[46]. 52-1868 – Selfridge Military Air Museum, Selfridge ANGB, Michigan.[47][48][49]. 52-1896 – New England Air Museum, Windsor Locks, Connecticut.[50]. 52-1911 (painted as 53-2509) – National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. This aircraft was the last F-89 remaining in service when it was transferred to the Museum from the Maine Air National Guard in July 1969.[51]. 52-1927 – Castle Air Museum (former Castle AFB), Atwater, California.[52]. 52-1941 – Peterson Air and Space Museum, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado.[53].

52-1949 – March Field Air Museum, March Air Reserve Base (former March AFB), Riverside, California.[54]. 52-2129 – Air Power Park and Museum (near Langley Air Force Base), Hampton, Virginia.[55]. 53-2547 – 120th Fighter Wing of the Montana Air National Guard at Great Falls Air National Guard Base, Great Falls International Airport, Montana. It is the only F-89 to have ever fired a Genie rocket with a live nuclear warhead, having done so as part of Operation Plumbob.[56].

53-2453 – Heritage Flight Museum, Burlington, Washington. (note: see 52-1862 above, marked as 53-2453)[57].

53-2604 – 119th Wing of the North Dakota Air National Guard, Fargo Air National Guard Base / Hector Field, Fargo, North Dakota.[58]. Drawings of the F-89 Scorpion. Data from Scorpion with a Nuclear Sting[59]. General characteristics. Length: 53 ft 9.5 in (16.396 m).

Wingspan: 59 ft 8.5 in (18.199 m). Height: 17 ft 6 in (5.33 m). Wing area: 606 sq ft (56.3 m2). Aspect ratio: 5.88. Airfoil:NACA 0009-64[60]. Empty weight: 25,194 lb (11,428 kg). Gross weight: 37,190 lb (16,869 kg). Max takeoff weight: 42,241 lb (19,160 kg). Powerplant: 2 × Allison J35-A-35afterburning turbojet engines, 5,440 lbf (24.2 kN) thrust each dry, 7,200 lbf (32 kN) with afterburner.

Maximum speed: 645 mph (1,038 km/h, 560 kn) at 10,600 ft (3,231 m). Ferry range: 1,366 mi (2,198 km, 1,187 nmi). Service ceiling: 49,200 ft (15,000 m). Rate of climb: 7,440 ft/min (37.8 m/s). 2 × pods of 52 2.75 in (70 mm) "Mighty Mouse" Mk 4/Mk 40 Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets, for a total of 104.[23]. Hughes E-6 fire-control system. AN/APG-40 radar. AN/APA-84 computer. Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era. ^Kinsey 1992, p. ^Blazer and Dorio 1993, pp. ^Air International July 1988, pp. ^ abAir International July 1988, p. ^Isham and McLaren, p. ^Blazer and Dorio 1993, pp. ^Isham and McLaren, pp. ^Blazer and Dorio 1993, pp. ^ abDavis and Menard 1990, p. ^Air International July 1988, pp. ^Davis and Menard 1990, p. ^ abcAir International July 1988, p. ^Blazer and Dorio 1993, pp.

^ abBlazer and Dorio 1993, p. ^Blazer and Dorio 1993, p.

^Blazer and Dorio 1993, pp. ^Davis and Menard 1990, p. ^Blazer and Dorio 1993, p. ^Knaack 1978, p. ^ abAir International July 1988, pp. ^Knaack 1978, p. ^Knaack 1978, pp. ^ abcAir International August 1988, pp. ^Knaack 1978, p. ^Green and Swanborough 1994, pp. ^ abcdefghAngelucci and Bowers 1987, p. ^RAMIREZ, CHARLES E. (18 April 2012). "Selfridge museum to restore fighter jet". detroitnews.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2019. ^ abAir International August 1988, p. ^"Standard Aircraft Characteristics: Northrop F-89F "Scorpion"."

National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 23 October 2016. ^ abAngelucci and Bowers 1987, p. ^Air International August 1988, pp. ^Air International August 1988, p. ^"F-89 Scorpion/49-2457." aerialvisuals.ca Retrieved: 2 February 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/52-1862." aerialvisuals.ca Retrieved: 2 February 2015. ^"Northrop F-89D Scorpion, 52-1862, US Air Force". ^"F-89 Scorpion/53-2463." Archived 24 February 2012 at the Wayback MachineRobins Air Force Base. Retrieved: 25 September 2011. ^"F-89 Scorpion/53-2494." aerialvisuals.ca Retrieved: 2 February 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/53-2519." Archived 6 August 2016 at the Wayback MachinePlanes of Fame Museum. Retrieved: 25 September 2011. ^"F-89 Scorpion/53-2536." EAA AirVenture Museum. Retrieved: 12 January 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/53-2610."

Archived 12 October 2014 at the Wayback MachineEglin Air Force Base. Retrieved: 25 September 2011. ^"F-89 Scorpion/53-2646." aerialvisuals.ca Retrieved: 12 January 2015.

Specifications (F-4E)[edit]

^"F-89 Scorpion/53-2674." Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 12 January 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/53-2677." Minnesota Air Guard Museum. Retrieved: 12 January 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/54-0298." aerialvisuals.ca Retrieved: 2 February 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/54-0322." Archived 7 October 2012 at the Wayback MachineHill Aerospace Museum. Retrieved: 9 October 2012. ^"F-89 Scorpion/52-1856." aerialvisuals.ca Retrieved: 2 February 2015. ^"F-89C "Scorpion""(PDF). Selfridge Military Air Museum. Retrieved 5 February 2022. ^Heaton, Dan (17 April 2012).

"Selfridge Museum Begins Work on F-89 Restoration". Archived from the original on 22 February 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2022. ^"Northrop F-89 Scorpion". Warbirds Resource Group. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2022. ^"F-89 Scorpion/52-1896." New England Air Museum. Retrieved: 9 October 2012. ^"F-89 Scorpion/52-1911." National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved: 16 July 2016. ^"F-89 Scorpion/52-1927." Archived 14 November 2016 at the Wayback MachineCastle Air Museum. Retrieved: 12 January 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/52-1941." Peterson Air and Space Museum. Retrieved: 12 January 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/52-1949." March Field Air Museum.

Retrieved: 12 January 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/52-2129." Hampton Air Power Park.

Retrieved: 25 September 2011. ^"F-89 Scorpion/53-2547." aerialvisuals.ca Retrieved: 12 January 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/52-2453." Archived 12 January 2015 at the Wayback MachineHeritage Flight Museum. Retrieved: 12 January 2015. ^"F-89 Scorpion/53-2604." aerialvisuals.ca Retrieved: 12 January 2015. ^Air International July 1988, p. ^Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019. Angelucci, Enzo and Peter Bowers. The American Fighter. Yeovil, UK: Haynes Publishing Group, 1987. Blazer, Gerald and Mike Dario. Northrop F-89 Scorpion. Leicester, UK; Aerofax, 1993. Davis, Larry and Dave Menard. F-89 Scorpion in Action (Aircraft Number 104). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1990. Green, William and Gordon Swanborough.

The Complete Book of Fighters: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Every Fighter Aircraft Built and Flown. London: Salamander Books, 1994. Isham, Marty J. Northrop F-89 Scorpion: A Photo Chronicle. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military History, 1996. F-89 Scorpion, (Detail and Scale Vol. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing, 1992. Knaack, Marcelle Size. Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems, Volume 1, Post-World War Two Fighters, 1945–1973. Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1978. "Scorpion with a Nuclear Sting: Northrop F-89".

Air International, Vol. 1, July 1988, pp. Bromley, UK: Fine Scroll.

"Scorpion with a Nuclear Sting: Northrop F-89—Part Two". Air International, Vol. 2, August 1988, pp. Bromley, UK: Fine Scroll. Swanborough, F. Gordon and Peter M. United States Military Aircraft Since 1909. London: Putnam, 1963. 1F-89D-1 Flight Handbook USAF Series F-89D Scorpion Aircraft (Part 1)[permanent dead link], (Part 2)[permanent dead link]. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Northrop_F-89_Scorpion&oldid=1069971017". The Phantom is a large fighter with a top speed of over Mach 2.2.

It can carry more than 18,000 pounds (8,400 kg) of weapons on nine external hardpoints, including air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground missiles, and various bombs. The F-4, like other interceptors of its time, was initially designed without an internal cannon. Later models incorporated an M61 Vulcan rotary cannon. Beginning in 1959, it set 15 world records for in-flight performance,[6] including an absolute speed record and an absolute altitude record.[7]. The F-4 was used extensively during the Vietnam War. It served as the principal air superiority fighter for the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps and became important in the ground-attack and aerial reconnaissance roles late in the war.

During the Vietnam War, one U.S. Air Force pilot, two weapon systems officers (WSOs),[8] one U.S.

Navy pilot and one radar intercept officer (RIO) became aces by achieving five aerial kills against enemy fighter aircraft.[9] The F-4 continued to form a major part of U.S. military air power throughout the 1970s and 1980s, being gradually replaced by more modern aircraft such as the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon in the U.S. Air Force, the F-14 Tomcat in the U.S. Navy, and the F/A-18 Hornet in the U.S. The F-4 Phantom II remained in use by the U.S. in the reconnaissance and Wild Weasel (Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses) roles in the 1991 Gulf War, finally leaving service in 1996.[10][11] It was also the only aircraft used by both U.S. flight demonstration teams: the United States Air Force Thunderbirds (F-4E) and the United States Navy Blue Angels (F-4J).[4][12][13] The F-4 was also operated by the armed forces of 11 other nations.

Israeli Phantoms saw extensive combat in several Arab–Israeli conflicts, while Iran used its large fleet of Phantoms, acquired before the fall of the Shah, in the Iran–Iraq War. As of 2021, 63 years after its first flight, the F-4 remains in active service with the air forces of Iran, South Korea, Greece and Turkey. The aircraft has most recently been in service against the Islamic State group in the Middle East. In 1952, McDonnell's Chief of Aerodynamics, Dave Lewis, was appointed by CEO Jim McDonnell to be the company's preliminary design manager.[14] With no new aircraft competitions on the horizon, internal studies concluded the Navy had the greatest need for a new and different aircraft type: an attack fighter.[15].

See also[edit]

The McDonnell F3H-G/H mockup, 1954. In 1953, McDonnell Aircraft began work on revising its F3H Demon naval fighter, seeking expanded capabilities and better performance. The company developed several projects, including a variant powered by a Wright J67 engine,[16] and variants powered by two Wright J65 engines, or two General Electric J79 engines.[17] The J79-powered version promised a top speed of Mach 1.97. On 19 September 1953, McDonnell approached the United States Navy with a proposal for the "Super Demon". Uniquely, the aircraft was to be modular, as it could be fitted with one- or two-seat noses for different missions, with different nose cones to accommodate radar, photo cameras, four 20 mm (.79 in) cannon, or 56 FFAR unguided rockets in addition to the nine hardpoints under the wings and the fuselage.

The Navy was sufficiently interested to order a full-scale mock-up of the F3H-G/H, but felt that the upcoming Grumman XF9F-9 and Vought XF8U-1 already satisfied the need for a supersonic fighter.[18]. The McDonnell design was therefore reworked into an all-weather fighter-bomber with 11 external hardpoints for weapons and on 18 October 1954, the company received a letter of intent for two YAH-1 prototypes.

Design[edit]

Then on 26 May 1955, four Navy officers arrived at the McDonnell offices and, within an hour, presented the company with an entirely new set of requirements.

Non-U.S. users[edit]

Because the Navy already had the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk for ground attack and F-8 Crusader for dogfighting, the project now had to fulfill the need for an all-weather fleet defense interceptor. A second crewman was added to operate the powerful radar;[2] designers believed that air combat in the next war would overload solo pilots with information.[19].

Key figures in the F-4 development: David Lewis, Robert Little, and Herman Barkey. The XF4H-1 was designed to carry four semi-recessed AAM-N-6 Sparrow III radar-guided missiles, and to be powered by two J79-GE-8 engines. As in the McDonnell F-101 Voodoo, the engines sat low in the fuselage to maximize internal fuel capacity and ingested air through fixed geometry intakes. The thin-section wing had a leading edge sweep of 45° and was equipped with blown flaps for better low-speed handling.[20]. Wind tunnel testing had revealed lateral instability, requiring the addition of 5° dihedral to the wings.[21] To avoid redesigning the titanium central section of the aircraft, McDonnell engineers angled up only the outer portions of the wings by 12°, which averaged to the required 5° over the entire wingspan.

The wings also received the distinctive "dogtooth" for improved control at high angles of attack. The all-moving tailplane was given 23° of anhedral to improve control at high angles of attack, while still keeping the tailplane clear of the engine exhaust.[20] In addition, air intakes were equipped with one fixed ramp and one variable geometry ramp with angle scheduled to give maximum pressure recovery between Mach 1.4 and Mach 2.2.

Alaskan Air Command[edit]

Airflow matching between the inlet and engine was achieved by bypassing the engine as secondary air into the exhaust nozzle. All-weather intercept capability was achieved with the AN/APQ-50 radar. To meet requirements for carrier operations, the landing gear was designed to withstand landings with a maximum sink rate of 23 ft/s (7 m/s), while the nose strut could extend by 20 in (51 cm) to increase angle of attack on the catapult portion of a takeoff.[21]. An F4H-1F aboard Independence, April 1960. On 25 July 1955, the Navy ordered two XF4H-1 test aircraft and five YF4H-1 pre-production examples. The Phantom made its maiden flight on 27 May 1958 with Robert C.

Northeast Air Command[edit]

Little at the controls. A hydraulic problem precluded retraction of the landing gear, but subsequent flights went more smoothly. Early testing resulted in redesign of the air intakes, including the distinctive addition of 12,500 holes to "bleed off" the slow-moving boundary layer air from the surface of each intake ramp.

Bibliography[edit]

Series production aircraft also featured splitter plates to divert the boundary layer away from the engine intakes. The aircraft was soon in competition with the XF8U-3 Crusader III. Due to cockpit workload, the Navy wanted a two-seat aircraft and on 17 December 1958 the F4H was declared the winner.

Delays with the J79-GE-8 engines meant that the first production aircraft were fitted with J79-GE-2 and −2A engines, each having 16,100 lbf (71.8 kN) of afterburning thrust. In 1959, the Phantom began carrier suitability trials with the first complete launch-recovery cycle performed on 15 February 1960 from Independence.[21]. There were proposals to name the F4H "Satan" and "Mithras".[21] In the end, the aircraft was given the less controversial name "Phantom II", the first "Phantom" being another McDonnell jet fighter, the FH-1 Phantom. The Phantom II was briefly given the designation F-110A and named "Spectre" by the USAF, but these were not officially used[22] and the Tri-Service aircraft designation system was adopted in September 1962.

United States Navy[edit]

VF-74 was the first operational U.S. Navy Phantom squadron in 1961. Early in production, the radar was upgraded to the Westinghouse AN/APQ-72, an AN/APG-50 with a larger radar antenna, necessitating the bulbous nose, and the canopy was reworked to improve visibility and make the rear cockpit less claustrophobic.[23] During its career the Phantom underwent many changes in the form of numerous variants developed. The USN operated the F4H-1 (re-designated F-4A in 1962) with J79-GE-2 and -2A engines of 16,100 lbf (71.62 kN) thrust and later builds receiving -8 engines.

A total of 45 F-4As were built; none saw combat, and most ended up as test or training aircraft.[24] The USN and USMC received the first definitive Phantom, the F-4B which was equipped with the Westinghouse APQ-72 radar (pulse only), a Texas Instruments AAA-4 Infrared search and track pod under the nose, an AN/AJB-3 bombing system and powered by J79-GE-8,-8A and -8B engines of 10,900 lbf (48.5 kN) dry and 16,950 lbf (75.4 kN) afterburner (reheat) with the first flight on 25 March 1961. 649 F-4Bs were built with deliveries beginning in 1961 and VF-121 Pacemakers receiving the first examples at NAS Miramar.[24]. The USAF received Phantoms as the result of Defense Secretary Robert McNamara's push to create a unified fighter for all branches of the US military.

Aerial combat in the Vietnam War[edit]

After an F-4B won the "Operation Highspeed" fly-off against the Convair F-106 Delta Dart, the USAF borrowed two Naval F-4Bs, temporarily designating them F-110A in January 1962, and developed requirements for their own version.

Unlike the US Navy's focus on air-to-air interception in the Fleet Air Defense (FAD) mission, the USAF emphasized both an air-to-air and an air-to-ground fighter-bomber role. With McNamara's unification of designations on 18 September 1962, the Phantom became the F-4 with the naval version designated F-4B and USAF F-4C. The first Air Force Phantom flew on 27 May 1963, exceeding Mach 2 on its maiden flight.[25]. The F-4J improved both air-to-air and ground-attack capability; deliveries begun in 1966 and ended in 1972 with 522 built.[26] It was equipped with J79-GE-10 engines with 17,844 lbf (79.374 kN) thrust, the Westinghouse AN/AWG-10 Fire Control System (making the F-4J the first fighter in the world with operational look-down/shoot-down capability),[27] a new integrated missile control system and the AN/AJB-7 bombing system for expanded ground attack capability.[28].

The F-4N (updated F-4Bs) with smokeless engines and F-4J aerodynamic improvements started in 1972 under a U.S. Navy-initiated refurbishment program called "Project Bee Line"[29] with 228 converted by 1978. Phantom II production ended in the United States in 1979 after 5,195 had been built (5,057 by McDonnell Douglas and 138 in Japan by Mitsubishi).

Of these, 2,874 went to the USAF, 1,264 to the Navy and Marine Corps, and the rest to foreign customers.[4] The last U.S.-built F-4 went to South Korea, while the last F-4 built was an F-4EJ built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Japan and delivered on 20 May 1981.[32] As of 2008, 631 Phantoms were in service worldwide,[33] while the Phantoms were in use as a target drone (specifically QF-4Cs) operated by the U.S.

Notable accidents[edit]

Origins[edit]

military until 21 December 2016, when the Air Force officially ended use of the type.[34]. Transcontinental "Operation LANA" in 1961. To show off their new fighter, the Navy led a series of record-breaking flights early in Phantom development:[4] All in all, the Phantom set 16 world records. Except for Skyburner, all records were achieved in unmodified production aircraft. Five of the speed records remained unbeaten until the F-15 Eagle appeared in 1975.[6]. Operation Top Flight: On 6 December 1959, the second XF4H-1 performed a zoom climb to a world record 98,557 ft (30,040 m).[7][35] Commander Lawrence E.

Former operators[edit]

Flint Jr., USN accelerated his aircraft to Mach 2.5 (2,660 km/h; 1,650 mph) at 47,000 ft (14,330 m) and climbed to 90,000 ft (27,430 m) at a 45° angle. He then shut down the engines and glided to the peak altitude. As the aircraft fell through 70,000 ft (21,300 m), Flint restarted the engines and resumed normal flight.[36]. On 5 September 1960, an F4H-1 averaged 1,216.78 mph (1,958.16 km/h) over a 500 km (311 mi) closed-circuit course.[7]. On 25 September 1960, an F4H-1F averaged 1,390.24 mph (2,237.37 km/h) over a 100 km (62.1 mi) closed-circuit course.[7] FAIRecord File Number 8898.

United States Air Force[edit]

Operation LANA: To celebrate the 50th anniversary of Naval aviation (L is the Roman numeral for 50 and ANA stood for Anniversary of Naval Aviation) on 24 May 1961, Phantoms flew across the continental United States in under three hours and included several tanker refuelings. The fastest of the aircraft averaged 869.74 mph (1,400.28 km/h) and completed the trip in 2 hours 47 minutes, earning the pilot (and future NASA Astronaut), Lieutenant Richard Gordon, USN and RIO, Lieutenant Bobbie Young, USN, the 1961 Bendix trophy.[7][37][38][39]. Operation Sageburner: On 28 August 1961, a F4H-1F Phantom II averaged 1,452.777 kilometers per hour (902.714 miles per hour) over a 3 mi (4.82 km) course flying below 125 feet (38.1 m) at all times.[7] Commander J.L. Felsman, USN was killed during the first attempt at this record on 18 May 1961 when his aircraft disintegrated in the air after pitch damper failure.[40].

Operation Skyburner: On 22 November 1961, a modified Phantom with water injection, piloted by Lt. Robinson, set an absolute world record average speed over a 20-mile (32.2 km) long 2-way straight course of 1,606.342 mph (2,585.086 km/h).[7][41][42][43]. On 5 December 1961, another Phantom set a sustained altitude record of 66,443.8 feet (20,252 m).[7]. Project High Jump: A series of time-to-altitude records was set in early 1962: 34.523 seconds to 3,000 m (9,840 ft), 48.787 seconds to 6,000 m (19,700 ft), 61.629 seconds to 9,000 m (29,500 ft), 77.156 seconds to 12,000 m (39,400 ft), 114.548 seconds to 15,000 m (49,200 ft), 178.5 s to 20,000 m (65,600 ft), 230.44 s to 25,000 m (82,000 ft), and 371.43 s to 30,000 m (98,400 ft).[44]. Cockpit of F-4 Phantom II.

The F-4 Phantom is a tandem-seat fighter-bomber designed as a carrier-based interceptor to fill the U.S. Navy's fleet defense fighter role. Innovations in the F-4 included an advanced pulse-Doppler radar and extensive use of titanium in its airframe.[45]. Despite imposing dimensions and a maximum takeoff weight of over 60,000 lb (27,000 kg),[46] the F-4 has a top speed of Mach 2.23 and an initial climb rate of over 41,000 ft/min (210 m/s).[47] The F-4's nine external hardpoints have a capability of up to 18,650 pounds (8,480 kg) of weapons, including air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles, and unguided, guided, and thermonuclear weapons.[48] Like other interceptors of its day, the F-4 was designed without an internal cannon.[49]. The baseline performance of a Mach 2-class fighter with long-range and a bomber-sized payload would be the template for the next generation of large and light/middle-weight fighters optimized for daylight air combat.[50].

"Speed is life" was F-4 pilots' slogan. The Phantom's greatest advantage in air combat was acceleration[19] and thrust, which permitted a skilled pilot to engage and disengage from the fight at will. MiGs usually could outturn the F-4 because of the high drag on its airframe;[51] as a massive fighter aircraft designed to fire radar-guided missiles from beyond visual range, the F-4 lacked the agility of its Soviet opponents and was subject to adverse yaw during hard maneuvering.

Citations[edit]

Although thus subject to irrecoverable spins during aileron rolls, pilots reported the aircraft to be very responsive and easy to fly on the edge of its performance envelope. In 1972, the F-4E model was upgraded with leading edge slats on the wing, greatly improving high angle of attack maneuverability at the expense of top speed.[52]. F-4 Phantom II flight demonstration video. The J79 had a reduced time lag between the pilot slamming the throttle, from idle to maximum thrust, and the engine producing maximum thrust compared to earlier engines. While landing on USS Midway(CV-41) John Chesire's tailhook missed the arresting gear after selecting idle thrust. By slamming the throttle to full afterburner he turned his bolter into a touch-and-go landing.[19] The J79 produced noticeable amounts of black smoke (at mid-throttle/cruise settings), a severe disadvantage in that it made it easier for the enemy to spot the aircraft.[53] Two decades after the aircraft entered service[19] this was solved on the F-4S, which was fitted with the −10A engine variant with a smokeless combustor.[54].

The lack of an internal gun "was the biggest mistake on the F-4", Chesire said; "Bullets are cheap and tend to go where you aim them. I needed a gun, and I really wished I had one". Marine Corps general John R. Dailey recalled that "everyone in RF-4s wished they had a gun on the aircraft".[19] For a brief period, doctrine held that turning combat would be impossible at supersonic speeds and little effort was made to teach pilots air combat maneuvering.

Notes[edit]

In reality, engagements quickly became subsonic, as pilots would slow down in an effort to get behind their adversaries. Furthermore, the relatively new heat-seeking and radar-guided missiles at the time were frequently reported as unreliable and pilots had to fire multiple missiles just to hit one enemy fighter. To compound the problem, rules of engagement in Vietnam precluded long-range missile attacks in most instances, as visual identification was normally required.

Many pilots found themselves on the tail of an enemy aircraft, but too close to fire short-range Falcons or Sidewinders. Although by 1965 USAF F-4Cs began carrying SUU-16 external gunpods containing a 20 mm (.79 in) M61A1 Vulcan Gatling cannon, USAF cockpits were not equipped with lead-computing gunsights until the introduction of the SUU-23, virtually assuring a miss in a maneuvering fight. Some Marine Corps aircraft carried two pods for strafing. In addition to the loss of performance due to drag, combat showed the externally mounted cannon to be inaccurate unless frequently boresighted, yet far more cost-effective than missiles.

The lack of a cannon was finally addressed by adding an internally mounted 20 mm (.79 in) M61A1 Vulcan on the F-4E.[52]. Note: Original amounts were in 1965 U.S. dollars.[55] The figures in these tables have been adjusted for inflation to the current year. In USAF service, the F-4 was initially designated the F-110A[56] prior to the introduction of the 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system.

Nicknames[edit]

The USAF quickly embraced the design and became the largest Phantom user. The first USAF Phantoms in Vietnam were F-4Cs from the 43rd Tactical Fighter Squadron arrived in December 1964.[57]. Unlike the U.S. Marine Corps, which flew the Phantom with a Naval Aviator (pilot) in the front seat and a Naval Flight Officer as a radar intercept officer (RIO) in the back seat, the USAF initially flew its Phantoms with a rated Air Force Pilot in front and back seats. Pilots usually did not like flying in the back seat;[19] while the GIB, or "guy in back", could fly and ostensibly land the aircraft, he had fewer flight instruments and a very restricted forward view.

The Spook[edit]

The Air Force later assigned a rated Air Force Navigator qualified as a weapon/targeting systems officer (later designated as weapon systems officer or WSO) in the rear seat instead of another pilot.[58][19]. On 10 July 1965, F-4Cs of the 45th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 15th TFW, on temporary assignment in Ubon, Thailand,[59] scored the USAF's first victories against North Vietnamese MiG-17s using AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles.[60] On 26 April 1966, an F-4C from the 480th Tactical Fighter Squadron scored the first aerial victory by a U.S.

XF4H-1 prototype[edit]

aircrew over a North Vietnamese MiG-21 "Fishbed".[61] On 24 July 1965, another Phantom from the 45th Tactical Fighter Squadron became the first American aircraft to be downed by an enemy SAM, and on 5 October 1966 an 8th Tactical Fighter Wing F-4C became the first U.S.

jet lost to an air-to-air missile, fired by a MiG-21. Early aircraft suffered from leaks in wing fuel tanks that required re-sealing after each flight and 85 aircraft were found to have cracks in outer wing ribs and stringers.[55] There were also problems with aileron control cylinders, electrical connectors, and engine compartment fires.

Reconnaissance RF-4Cs made their debut in Vietnam on 30 October 1965, flying the hazardous post-strike reconnaissance missions. The USAF Thunderbirds used the F-4E from the 1969 season until 1974.[12]. 435th TFS F-4Ds over Vietnam. Although the F-4C was essentially identical to the Navy/Marine Corps F-4B in-flight performance and carried the AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles, USAF-tailored F-4Ds initially arrived in June 1967 equipped with AIM-4 Falcons.

Description

  • However, the Falcon, like its predecessors, was designed to shoot down heavy bombers flying straight and level.
  • Its reliability proved no better than others and its complex firing sequence and limited seeker-head cooling time made it virtually useless in combat against agile fighters.
  • The F-4Ds reverted to using Sidewinders under the "Rivet Haste" program in early 1968, and by 1972 the AIM-7E-2 "Dogfight Sparrow" had become the preferred missile for USAF pilots.
  • Like other Vietnam War Phantoms, the F-4Ds were urgently fitted with radar warning receivers to detect the Soviet-built S-75 Dvina SAMs.[62].
  • From the initial deployment of the F-4C to Southeast Asia, USAF Phantoms performed both air superiority and ground attack roles, supporting not only ground troops in South Vietnam, but also conducting bombing sorties in Laos and North Vietnam.

Operators[edit]

As the F-105 force underwent severe attrition between 1965 and 1968, the bombing role of the F-4 proportionately increased until after November 1970 (when the last F-105D was withdrawn from combat) it became the primary USAF tactical ordnance delivery system.
In October 1972 the first squadron of EF-4C Wild Weasel aircraft deployed to Thailand on temporary duty.[63] The "E" prefix was later dropped and the aircraft was simply known as the F-4C Wild Weasel.
USAF F-4 Phantom II destroyed on 18 February 1968, during the enemy attack against Tan Son Nhut, during the Tet Offensive.
Sixteen squadrons of Phantoms were permanently deployed between 1965 and 1973, and 17 others deployed on temporary combat assignments.[64] Peak numbers of combat F-4s occurred in 1972, when 353 were based in Thailand.[65] A total of 445 Air Force Phantom fighter-bombers were lost, 370 in combat and 193 of those over North Vietnam (33 to MiGs, 30 to SAMs, and 307 to AAA).[65].
The RF-4C was operated by four squadrons,[66] and of the 83 losses, 72 were in combat including 38 over North Vietnam (seven to SAMs and 65 to AAA).[65] By war's end, the U.S.
Australia
  • Air Force had lost a total of 528 F-4 and RF-4C Phantoms. When combined with U.S. Navy and Marine Corps losses of 233 Phantoms, 761 F-4/RF-4 Phantoms were lost in the Vietnam War.[67].
Kuwait
  • On 31 January 1972, the 170th Tactical Fighter Squadron/183d Tactical Fighter Group of the Illinois Air National Guard became the first Air National Guard unit to transition to Phantoms from Republic F-84F Thunderstreaks which were found to have corrosion problems.[69] Phantoms would eventually equip numerous tactical fighter and tactical reconnaissance units in the USAF active, National Guard, and reserve.
United States
  • On 2 June 1972, a Phantom flying at supersonic speed shot down a MiG-19 over Thud Ridge in Vietnam with its cannon. At a recorded speed of Mach 1.2, Major Phil Handley's shoot down was the first and only recorded gun kill while flying at supersonic speeds.[70][71]. USAFE F-4G, A-10A and RF-4C, 6 April 1987. On 15 August 1990, 24 F-4G Wild Weasel Vs and six RF-4Cs were deployed to Shaikh Isa AB, Bahrain, for Operation Desert Storm. The F-4G was the only aircraft in the USAF inventory equipped for the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) role, and was needed to protect coalition aircraft from Iraq's extensive air defense system. The RF-4C was the only aircraft equipped with the ultra-long-range KS-127 LOROP (long-range oblique photography) camera, and was used for a variety of reconnaissance missions. In spite of flying almost daily missions, only one RF-4C was lost in a fatal accident before the start of hostilities. One F-4G was lost when enemy fire damaged the fuel tanks and the aircraft ran out of fuel near a friendly airbase. The last USAF Phantoms, F-4G Wild Weasel Vs from 561st Fighter Squadron, were retired on 26 March 1996. The last operational flight of the F-4G Wild Weasel was from the 190th Fighter Squadron, Idaho Air National Guard, in April 1996.[72] The last operational USAF/ANG F-4 to land was flown by Maj Mike Webb and Maj Gary Leeder of the Idaho ANG. Navy F-4B from VF-111 dropping bombs over Vietnam, 25 November 1971. On 30 December 1960, the VF-121 "Pacemakers" at NAS Miramar became the first Phantom operator with its F4H-1Fs (F-4As). The VF-74 "Be-devilers" at NAS Oceana became the first deployable Phantom squadron when it received its F4H-1s (F-4Bs) on 8 July 1961.[81] The squadron completed carrier qualifications in October 1961 and Phantom's first full carrier deployment between August 1962 and March 1963 aboard Forrestal.[82] The second deployable U.S.

McDonnell RF-4E Phantom II of the Luftwaffe's AKG52 unit in 1977. In 1973, under the "Peace Rhine" program, the Luftwaffe purchased the F-4F (a lightened and simplified version of the F-4E) which was upgraded in the mid-1980s.[106] 24 German F-4F Phantom IIs were operated by the 49th Tactical Fighter Wing of the USAF at Holloman AFB to train Luftwaffe crews until December 2004.

Costs[edit]

In 1975, Germany also received 10 F-4Es for training in the U.S. In the late 1990s, these were withdrawn from service after being replaced by F-4Fs.[107] Germany also initiated the Improved Combat Efficiency (ICE) program in 1983. The 110 ICE-upgraded F-4Fs entered service in 1992,[106] and were expected to remain in service until 2012.[108] All the remaining Luftwaffe Phantoms were based at Wittmund with Jagdgeschwader 71 (fighter wing 71) in Northern Germany[109] and WTD61 at Manching.

United States Marine Corps[edit]

Phantoms were deployed to NATO states under the Baltic Air Policing starting in 2005, 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2012.
The German Air Force retired its last F-4Fs on 29 June 2013. German F-4Fs flew 279,000 hours from entering service on 31 August 1973 until retirement.[110][111].

Hellenic Air Force RF-4E Phantom II in a special color scheme, lands at RIAT 2008, UK. In 1971, the Hellenic Air Force ordered brand new F-4E Phantoms, with deliveries starting in 1974.

In the early 1990s, the Hellenic AF acquired surplus RF-4Es and F-4Es from the Luftwaffe and U.S.

  • Following the success of the German ICE program, on 11 August 1997, a contract was signed between DASA of Germany and Hellenic Aerospace Industry for the upgrade of 39 aircraft to the very similar "Peace Icarus 2000" standard.[21] The Hellenic AF operated 34 upgraded F-4E-PI2000 (338 and 339 Squadrons) and 12 RF-4E aircraft (348 Squadron) as of September 2013.
  • On 5 May 2017, the Hellenic Air Force officially retired the RF-4E Phantom II during a public ceremony.[114].
  • In the 1960s and 1970s when the U.S.
  • and Iran were on friendly terms, the U.S.
  • sold 225 F-4D, F-4E, and RF-4E Phantoms to Iran.
  • The Imperial Iranian Air Force saw at least one engagement, resulting in a loss, after an RF-4C was rammed[115] by a Soviet MiG-21 during Project Dark Gene, an ELINT operation during the Cold War.
  • Iranian F-4E Phantom refueling through a boom during Iran-Iraq war, 1982.
  • The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force Phantoms saw heavy action in the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s and were kept operational by overhaul and servicing from Iran's aerospace industry.[116] Notable operations of Iranian F-4s during the war included Operation Scorch Sword, an attack by two F-4s against the Iraqi Osirak nuclear reactor site near Baghdad on 30 September 1980,[117] and the attack on H3, a 4 April 1981 strike by eight Iranian F-4s against the H-3 complex of air bases in the far west of Iraq, which resulted in many Iraqi aircraft being destroyed or damaged for no Iranian losses.[118].
  • On 5 June 1984, two Saudi Arabian fighter pilots shot down two Iranian F-4 fighters.
  • The Royal Saudi Air Force pilots were flying American-built F-15s and fired air-to-air missiles to bring down the Iranian planes.
  • The Saudi fighter pilots had KC-135 aerial tanker planes and Boeing E-3 Sentry AWACS surveillance planes assist in the encounter.

The aerial fight occurred in Saudi airspace over the Persian Gulf near the Saudi island Al Arabiyah, about 60 miles northeast of Jubail.[119].

  • Iranian F-4s were in use as of late 2014;[120] the aircraft reportedly conducted air strikes on ISIS targets in the eastern Iraqi province of Diyala.[121].
  • An Israeli F-4E on static display in the Olga's Hill neighborhood of Hadera, Israel.
  • The Israeli Air Force was the largest foreign operator of the Phantom, flying both newly built and ex-USAF aircraft, as well as several one-off special reconnaissance variants.
  • The first F-4Es, nicknamed "Kurnass" (Sledgehammer), and RF-4Es, nicknamed "Orev" (Raven), were delivered in 1969 under the "Peace Echo I" program.
  • Additional Phantoms arrived during the 1970s under "Peace Echo II" through "Peace Echo V" and "Nickel Grass" programs.
  • Israeli Phantoms saw extensive combat during Arab–Israeli conflicts, first seeing action during the War of Attrition.[122] In the 1980s, Israel began the "Kurnass 2000" modernization program which significantly updated avionics.[21] The last Israeli F-4s were retired in 2004.[123].
  • JASDF F-4EJ Kais (57-8354 and 87-8407) of 8 Hikōtai in grey air superiority paint scheme, 2002.
  • From 1968, the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) purchased a total of 140 F-4EJ Phantoms without aerial refueling, AGM-12 Bullpup missile system, nuclear control system or ground attack capabilities.[124][125] Mitsubishi built 138 under license in Japan and 14 unarmed reconnaissance RF-4Es were imported.
  • One of the aircraft (17-8440) was the last of the 5,195 F-4 Phantoms to be produced.
  • It was manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries on 21 May 1981.

"The Final Phantom" served with 306th Tactical Fighter Squadron and later transferred to the 301st Tactical Fighter Squadron.[126].

  • JASDF RF-4E Kai 57-6913 of 501 Hikōtai in 2017. Of these, 96 F-4EJs were modified to the F-4EJ Kai (改, modified) standard.[127] 15 F-4EJ and F-4EJ Kai were converted to reconnaissance aircraft designated RF-4EJ.
  • Japan had a fleet of 90 F-4s in service in 2007. After studying several replacement fighters[128][129] the F-35A Lightning II was chosen in 2011.[130] The 302nd Tactical Fighter Squadron became the first JASDF F-35 Squadron at Misawa Air Base when it converted from the F-4EJ Kai on 29 March 2019.[131] The JASDF's sole aerial reconnaissance unit, the 501st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, retired their RF-4Es and RF-4EJs on 9 March 2020, and the unit itself dissolved on 26 March.[132]. South Korean F-4E, armed with an AGM-65 Maverick air-to-ground missile, 19 February 1979. The Republic of Korea Air Force purchased its first batch of secondhand USAF F-4D Phantoms in 1968 under the "Peace Spectator" program. The F-4Ds continued to be delivered until 1988. The "Peace Pheasant II" program also provided new-built and former USAF F-4Es.[137]. The Spanish Air Force acquired its first batch of ex-USAF F-4C Phantoms in 1971 under the "Peace Alfa" program. Designated C.12, the aircraft were retired in 1989. At the same time, the air arm received a number of ex-USAF RF-4Cs, designated CR.12. In 1995–1996, these aircraft received extensive avionics upgrades. Spain retired its RF-4s in 2002.[138][139]. Retired Turkish Air Force F-4E Phantom II, serial number 67-0360, housed at the Istanbul Aviation Museum.

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center acquired an F-4A on 3 December 1965.

  • It made 55 flights in support of short programs, chase on X-15 missions and lifting body flights.
  • The F-4 also supported a biomedical monitoring program involving 1,000 flights by NASA Flight Research Center aerospace research pilots and students of the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School flying high-performance aircraft.
  • The pilots were instrumented to record accurate and reliable data of electrocardiogram, respiration rate, and normal acceleration.
  • In 1967, the Phantom supported a brief military-inspired program to determine whether an airplane's sonic boom could be directed and whether it could be used as a weapon of sorts, or at least an annoyance.
  • NASA also flew an F-4C in a spanwise blowing study from 1983 to 1985, after which it was returned.[165].

Operators[edit]

QF-4E AF Serial No.

74-1626 at McGuire AFB in May 2007 with an A-10 in the background.

F-4Fs of the German Air Force, 21 January 1998.

Civilian use[edit]

Air Defense Command[edit]

  1. Iranian F-4Es, 2009. Spanish Air Force RF-4C Phantom II, 15 June 1993.

Flight characteristics[edit]

  1. Hellenic Air Force – 18 F-4E AUPs in service[166]Andravida Air Base, Elis338 MDV. Andravida Air Base, Elis338 MDV. Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force – 62 F-4D, F-4E, and RF-4Es in service[166][167]Bandar Abbas Air Base, Hormozgan Province91st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4E)Bushehr Air Base, Bushehr Province61st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4E)Chabahar Konarak Air Base, Sistan and Baluchestan Province101st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4D)Hamadan Air Base, Hamadan Province31st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron (RF-4E)31st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4E).
  2. Bandar Abbas Air Base, Hormozgan Province91st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4E). 91st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4E). Bushehr Air Base, Bushehr Province61st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4E).
  3. 61st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4E). Chabahar Konarak Air Base, Sistan and Baluchestan Province101st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4D). 101st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4D). Hamadan Air Base, Hamadan Province31st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron (RF-4E)31st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4E).
  4. 31st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron (RF-4E). 31st Tactical Fighter Squadron (F-4E). Republic of Korea Air Force – 27 F-4Es in service[166]Suwon Air Base, Gyeonggi Province153rd Fighter Squadron.
  5. Suwon Air Base, Gyeonggi Province153rd Fighter Squadron. 153rd Fighter Squadron. Turkish Air Force – 26 F-4E 2020 Terminators in service[166]Eskişehir Air Base, Eskişehir Province111 Filo.
  6. Eskişehir Air Base, Eskişehir Province111 Filo. Royal Australian Air Force (F-4E 1970 to 1973)[168]. Egyptian Air Force (F-4E 1977 to 2020)[103]. German Air Force (RF-4E 1971 to 1994; F-4F 1973 to 2013; F-4E 1978 to 1992)[169].
  7. Hellenic Air Force (RF-4E 1978 to 2017)[114]. Imperial Iranian Air Force (F-4D 1968 to 1979; F-4E 1971 to 1979; RF-4E 1971 to 1979)[170].
  8. Israeli Air Force (F-4E 1969 to 2004;[171] RF-4C 1970 to 1971;[172] RF-4E 1971 to 2004)[173].
  9. Japan Air Self-Defense Force (F-4EJ 1971 to 2021;[136] RF-4E 1974 to 2020; RF-4EJ 1992 to 2020)[174]. Republic of Korea Air Force (F-4D 1969 to 2010;[175] RF-4C 1989 to 2014)[176]. Spanish Air Force (F-4C 1971 to 1990; RF-4C 1978 to 2002)[177].
  10. Turkish Air Force (RF-4E 1980 to 2015)[178]. Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (F-4K 1970 to 1994)[179].
  11. Fleet Air Arm (F-4K 1968 to 1978)[156]. Royal Air Force (F-4M 1968 to 1992; F-4K 1969 to 1990; F-4J(UK) 1984 to 1991)[156].
  12. NASA (F-4A 1965 to 1967;[180] F-4C 1983 to 1985)[165]. United States Air Force (F-4B 1963 to 1964;[181] F-4C 1964 to 1989;[182] RF-4C 1964 to 1995;[183] F-4D 1965 to 1992; F-4E 1967 to 1991;[182] F-4G 1978 to 1996;[181] QF-4 1996 to 2016)[184].
  13. United States Marine Corps (F-4B 1962 to 1979; RF-4B 1965 to 1990; F-4J 1967 to 1984;[185] F-4N 1973 to 1985;[186] F-4S 1978 to 1992)[185].
  14. United States Navy (F-4A 1960 to 1968; F-4B 1961 to 1974; F-4J 1966 to 1982; F-4N 1973 to 1984; F-4S 1979 to 1987; QF-4 1983 to 2004)[187]. An F-4F on display described as the "World's largest distributor of MiG parts", because of the high number of this type of enemy aircraft shot down.
  15. The Phantom gathered a number of nicknames during its career. Some of these names included "Snoopy", "Rhino", "Double Ugly",[188] "Old Smokey",[58] the "Flying Anvil", "Flying Footlocker", "Flying Brick", "Lead Sled", the "Big Iron Sled", and the "St.
  16. Louis Slugger".[189] In recognition of its record of downing large numbers of Soviet-built MiGs,[190] it was called the "World's Leading Distributor of MiG Parts".[188] As a reflection of excellent performance in spite of its bulk, the F-4 was dubbed "the triumph of thrust over aerodynamics."
  17. [191] German Luftwaffe crews called their F-4s the Eisenschwein ("Iron Pig"), Fliegender Ziegelstein ("Flying Brick") and Luftverteidigungsdiesel ("Air Defense Diesel").[192].
  18. Imitating the spelling of the aircraft's name, McDonnell issued a series of patches. Pilots became "Phantom Phlyers", backseaters became "Phantom Pherrets", fans of the F-4 "Phantom Phanatics", and call it the "Phabulous Phantom".
  19. Ground crewmen who worked on the aircraft are known as "Phantom Phixers".[4]. Several active websites are devoted to sharing information on the F-4, and the aircraft is grudgingly admired as brutally effective by those who have flown it.
  20. Colonel (Ret.) Chuck DeBellevue reminisced, "The F-4 Phantom was the last plane that looked like it was made to kill somebody. It was a beast.
  21. It could go through a flock of birds and kick out barbeque from the back." [193] It had "A reputation of being a clumsy bruiser reliant on brute engine power and obsolete weapons technology." The aircraft's emblem is a whimsical cartoon ghost called "The Spook", which was created by McDonnell Douglas technical artist, Anthony "Tony" Wong, for shoulder patches.
  22. The name "Spook" was coined by the crews of either the 12th Tactical Fighter Wing or the 4453rd Combat Crew Training Wing at MacDill AFB. The figure is ubiquitous, appearing on many items associated with the F-4.
  23. The Spook has followed the Phantom around the world adopting local fashions; for example, the British adaptation of the U.S.
  24. "Phantom Man"[188] is a Spook that sometimes wears a bowler hat and smokes a pipe.[195]. As a result of its extensive number of operators and large number of aircraft produced, there are many F-4 Phantom II of numerous variants on display worldwide.
  25. On 6 June 1971, Hughes Airwest Flight 706, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-31 collided in mid-air with a United States Marine Corps F-4B Phantom above the San Gabriel Mountains, while en route from Los Angeles International Airport to Salt Lake City.
  26. All 49 on board the DC-9 were killed, while the pilot of the F-4B was unable to eject and died when the aircraft crashed shortly afterwards.
  27. The F-4B's Radar Intercept Officer successfully ejected from the plane and parachuted to safety, being the sole survivor of the incident.
  28. On 9 August 1974, a Royal Air Force Phantom FGR2 was involved in a fatal collision with a civilian PA-25-235 Pawnee crop-sprayer over Norfolk, England.
  29. Aircraft Accident Report 975. On 21 March 1987, Captain Dean Paul Martin, a pilot in the 163d Tactical Fighter Group of the California Air National Guard and son of entertainer Dean Martin, crashed his F-4C into San Gorgonio Mountain, California shortly after departure from March Air Force Base.
  30. Both Martin and his weapon systems officer (WSO) Captain Ramon Ortiz were killed.[196]. 3-side view of the F-4E/F. Structural view of partially disassembled German F-4 Phantoms.
  31. Marine Corps RF-4B in September 1982. Data fromThe Great Book of Fighters[106] Quest for Performance,[20]Encyclopedia of USAF Aircraft,[55] and McDonnell F-4 Phantom: Spirit in the Skies[197].
  32. General characteristics. Length: 63 ft 0 in (19.2 m). Wingspan: 38 ft 5 in (11.7 m). Height: 16 ft 5 in (5 m). Wing area: 530 sq ft (49.2 m2). Aspect ratio: 2.77.
  33. Airfoil:NACA 0006.4–64 root, NACA 0003-64 tip. Empty weight: 30,328 lb (13,757 kg). Gross weight: 41,500 lb (18,824 kg). Max takeoff weight: 61,795 lb (28,030 kg) .
  34. Maximum landing weight: 36,831 lb (16,706 kg). Fuel capacity: 1,994 US gal (1,660 imp gal; 7,550 l) internal, 3,335 US gal (2,777 imp gal; 12,620 l) with 2x 370 US gal (310 imp gal; 1,400 l) external tanks on the outer wing hardpoints and either a 600 or 610 US gal (500 or 510 imp gal; 2,300 or 2,300 l) tank for the center-line station.
  35. Powerplant: 2 × General Electric J79-GE-17A after-burning turbojet engines, 11,905 lbf (52.96 kN) thrust each dry, 17,845 lbf (79.38 kN) with afterburner. Maximum speed: 1,280 kn (1,470 mph, 2,370 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,000 m).
  36. Maximum speed: Mach 2.23. Cruise speed: 510 kn (580 mph, 940 km/h). Combat range: 370 nmi (420 mi, 680 km). Ferry range: 1,457 nmi (1,677 mi, 2,699 km).
  37. Service ceiling: 60,000 ft (18,000 m). Rate of climb: 41,300 ft/min (210 m/s). Lift-to-drag: 8.58. Wing loading: 78 lb/sq ft (380 kg/m2). Thrust/weight: 0.86 at loaded weight, 0.58 at MTOW.
  38. Takeoff roll: 4,490 ft (1,370 m) at 53,814 lb (24,410 kg). Landing roll: 3,680 ft (1,120 m) at 36,831 lb (16,706 kg).
  39. VF-96 F-4J "Showtime 100" armed with Sidewinder and Sparrow missiles, 9 February 1972. E-model has a 20 mm (0.787 in)M61A1 Vulcan cannon mounted internally under the nose, 640 rounds.
  40. Up to 18,650 lb (8,480 kg) of weapons on nine external hardpoints, including general-purpose bombs, cluster bombs, TV- and laser-guided bombs, rocket pods, air-to-ground missiles, anti-ship missiles, gun pods, and nuclear weapons.
  41. Reconnaissance, targeting, electronic countermeasures and baggage pods, and external fuel tanks may also be carried.
  42. 4× AIM-9 Sidewinders on wing pylons, Israeli F-4 Kurnass 2000 carried Python-3, Japanese F-4EJ Kai carry AAM-3. 4× AIM-7 Sparrow in fuselage recesses, upgraded Hellenic F-4E and German F-4F ICE carry AIM-120 AMRAAM, UK Phantoms carried Skyflash missiles[198].
  43. 6× AGM-65 Maverick. 4× AGM-62 Walleye. 4× AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-88 HARM, AGM-78 Standard ARM. 18× Mk.82, GBU-12. 5× Mk.84, GBU-10, GBU-14.
  44. 18× CBU-87, CBU-89, CBU-58. Nuclear weapons, including the B28EX, B61, B43 and B57. Related development. Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era. ^The aircraft was originally designated the AH, and later re-designated F4H, by the United States Navy, while the U.S.
  45. Air Force's original designation was "F-110A Spectre". The F-4 designation came about in 1962 when the designation systems for all branches of the U.S.
  46. military were unified by the order of U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara. Within McDonnell Aircraft, the F-4 was referred to as Model 98.[2].
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  117. 航空総隊司令官は、#百里基地 において、#航空総隊 直轄部隊である #偵察航空隊 の廃止に伴う #隊旗返還式 を執行しました。偵空隊の総員が整列し見守る中、偵空隊司令から総隊司令官に隊旗が返還。偵空隊は3/26をもって廃止され、1961年の創設から59年の長きに亘る栄光の歴史に幕を閉じました。 (Tweet) (in Japanese) – via Twitter.
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  119. ^@jasdf_hyakuri (20 November 2020). 本日 #百里基地 は、#第301飛行隊 壮行行事を実施しました。48年間に及ぶ #F4 運用の終止符として、基地協力団体代表の方々、歴代飛行隊長、総隊司令官、統幕副長をはじめ多くの方々のご臨席を賜り301飛行隊の偉業をたたえるとともに新たな門出を祝いました。 (Tweet) (in Japanese) – via Twitter.
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  197. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=McDonnell_Douglas_F-4_Phantom_II&oldid=1080203012". The Lockheed F-94 Starfire was a first-generationjet powered all-weather, day/night interceptor of the United States Air Force.
  198. A twin-seat craft, it was developed from the Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star trainer in the late 1940s.
  199. It reached operational service in May 1950 with Air Defense Command, replacing the piston-engined North American F-82 Twin Mustang in the all-weather interceptor role.
  200. The F-94 was the first operational USAF fighter equipped with an afterburner, and first jet-powered all-weather fighter to enter combat during the Korean War in January 1953.
  201. It had a relatively brief operational life, being replaced in the mid-1950s by the Northrop F-89 Scorpion and North American F-86D Sabre.
  202. The last aircraft left active-duty service in 1958 and Air National Guard service in 1959. Lockheed YF-94 (S/N 48-373).
  203. This was the second aircraft built (from TF-80C). Built to a 1948 USAF specification for a radar-equipped interceptor to replace the aging Northrop F-61 Black Widow and North American F-82 Twin Mustang, it was specifically designed to counter the threat of the USSR's new Tupolev Tu-4 bombers (reverse-engineered Boeing B-29).
  204. The Curtiss-Wright XF-87 Blackhawk had been designated to be the USAF first jet night fighter, but its performance was subpar, and Lockheed was asked to design a jet night fighter on a crash program basis.[1] The F-94 was derived from the TF-80C (later T-33A Shooting Star) which was a two-seat trainer version of the F-80 Shooting Star.
  205. A lengthened nose area with guns, radar, and automatic fire control system was added. Since the conversion seemed so simple, a contract was awarded to Lockheed in early 1949, with the first flight on 16 April 1949.
  206. The early test YF-94s used 75% of the parts used in the earlier F-80 and T-33As.[2].
  207. The fire control system was the Hughes E-1, which incorporated an AN/APG-33 radar (derived from the AN/APG-3, which directed the Convair B-36's tail guns) and a Sperry A-1C computing gunsight.[3] This short-range radar system was useful only in the terminal phases of the interception.
  208. Most of the operation would be directed using ground-controlled interception, as was the case with the earlier aircraft it replaced.
  209. The added weight of the electronic equipment required a more powerful engine, so the standard Allison J33A-35 centrifugalturbojet engine, which had been fitted to the T-33A, was replaced with a more powerful afterburning version, the J-33-A-33.
  210. The combination reduced the internal fuel capacity. The F-94 was to be the first US production jet with an afterburner. The J33-A-33 had standard thrust of 4,000 pounds-force (18 kN), and with water injection this was increased to 5,400 lbf (24 kN) and with afterburning a maximum of 6,000 lbf (27 kN) thrust.[2] The YF-94A's afterburner had many teething problems with its igniter and the flame stabilization system.[1].
  211. F-94A 49-2548, 2d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, McGuire AFB, NJ. The initial production model was the F-94A, which entered operational service in May 1950.
  212. Its armament was four 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M3 Browning machine guns mounted in the fuselage with the muzzles exiting just behind the radome.
  213. Two 165-US-gallon (620 l) drop tanks, as carried by the F-80 and T-33, could be carried beneath the wingtips.
  214. Alternatively, these could be replaced by 1,000-pound (450 kg) bombs, giving the aircraft a secondary fighter bomber role.[3][4] 109 were produced. The F-94A was in operational service for only a brief time as it was originally built, and was not received well by its aircrews.
  215. Primarily, this was due to the unreliability of its J33 engine, which caused many ground aborts and was deemed by the crews to be unsafe.
  216. The aircraft was judged as unstable and hard to maneuver at high altitude by its pilots. The pilot and radar operator found that the cockpit was too narrow for them to be able to get in and out of the aircraft quickly during alerts and scrambles.
  217. The clearance for the ejection seats was too small, resulting in several tragic accidents during emergency ejections.[5].
  218. 61st Fighter-Interceptor Squadron Lockheed F-94B 50-879. The subsequent F-94B, which entered service in January 1951, was outwardly virtually identical to the F-94A.
  219. The Allison J33 turbojet had a number of modifications made, which made it a very reliable engine; the pilot was provided with a more roomy cockpit and the canopy was replaced by a canopy with a bow frame in the center between the two crew members, as well as a new Instrument Landing System (ILS).
  220. 356 of these were built. It proved in service to be a very reliable aircraft with relatively few problems. As they replaced the F-94As in service with the active-duty squadrons, the older models were sent to Lockheed to be re-engined and modified to F-94B standards.
  221. These upgraded F-94A/B aircraft were also modified with a twin-gun pod under each wing for two additional 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns each, bringing the total to eight.
  222. These aircraft were then passed along to Air National Guard units where they served until the end of the 1950s.[5].
  223. F-94C being armed with 2.75 in (70 mm) FFARs. The F-94C Starfire was extensively modified from the early F-94 variants.
  224. In fact, it was initially designated F-97, but it was ultimately decided to treat it as a new version of the F-94.
  225. USAF interest was lukewarm, so Lockheed funded development themselves, converting two F-94B airframes to YF-94C prototypes for evaluation.
  226. To improve performance, a completely new, much thinner wing was designed, along with a swept tail surface.
  227. The J33 engine was replaced with a more powerful Pratt & Whitney J48, a license-built version of the afterburning Rolls-Royce Tay, which dramatically increased power, producing a dry thrust of 6,350 pounds-force (28.2 kN) and approximately 8,750 lbf (38.9 kN) with afterburning.[2] The fire control system was upgraded to the new Hughes E-5 with an AN/APG-40 radar in a much larger nose.

Production[edit]

  • The guns were removed and replaced with all-rocket armament consisting of four groups of six rockets in a ring around the nose.
  • The rockets were carried in four panels that could be hinged upwards and outwards for ground reloading.
  • In flight these rockets were normally hidden aft of four inwards-folding doors that surrounded the nose cone. According to Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier, the F-94C was capable of supersonic flight in a steep dive with afterburner engaged.[6].
  • The F-94C was the only variant to be officially named Starfire.[citation needed] With time, the entire F-94 family has adopted the name.
  • The first production F-94C aircraft were delivered in July 1951, 387 examples being delivered before May 1954.
  • The largest problem discovered in service was the nose-mounted rockets, which blinded the crew with their smoke and fire.

Far East Air Force[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.
  • The most severe problem associated with firing the nose-mounted rockets was that the exhaust could cause a flameout of the jet engine, which could lead to loss of the aircraft.
  • After the 100th aircraft, mid-wing rocket pods were added to the leading edges, similar in concept to the previous gun pods, holding 12 rockets apiece and fitted with a frangible aerodynamic nose cap which was discarded when firing the rockets.[7] Most of the time, the nose rockets were not fitted, and the mid-wing pod rockets were the sole armament.
  • This version of the aircraft was extensively used within the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) air defense system.
  • An F-94D model was proposed as a single-seat fighter bomber, with bombs and rockets under the wings.
A single prototype was built, but the model was not accepted for production. The prototype was later used as a testbed for the 20 mm (0.79 in) M61 Vulcan cannon subsequently used on the F-104 Starfighter and many others.