Material For Vray

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V-Ray Materials

Your #1 vray-materials resource is back online! We reduced the colors a little so they dont visually block your focus while inspecting the materials, also some of you had troubles with the fonts so we replaced them with a custom fontname and we add the searchbar again 😀 .

New static webpage is up an running. Happy new year folks. We know you all have been waiting for the update so thank your for your patience.

Using V-Ray Materials...

As you know we took down all personal data and are running the site completly static without any database and stuff but if you still want to contribute to our site, please check out the upload page:.

  • 16:30: Redirecting the traffic to our new page.
  • 12:50: Got also in contact with cybercrime law enforcement.
  • 10:15: All mails to the records we found in the breached data were sent out.
  • Between the bounces we receive also some very kind replies.

We will bring back all the materials as before for free, but the community features and personal data wont come back.

Thanks for your motivation! 14:10: Mails are still sending out. Getting A LOT of bounces back, but also kind replies. Thank you, this helps a lot ❀ . 10:32: Our hoster scanned our site but found no known security hole.

08:00: Start sending out mails to all addresses contained in the leak. 02:00: The dump contained only "email:password" (some are hashed and some are dehashed only) but not in chronological order so we had to rearange the records first while mapping them to the affected database.

Wall Materials

Last email entry has "07.06.2018" as registration date. Information-Mail goes out to all records from the dump, soon. 19:00: Still analysing the data, comparing users and timestamps, also hoster prepared the e-mail server for sending out the information mail.


12:00: Setup of this information page.

11:35: Reporting to the local data protection authority ( 10:17: Changing SSH- and Database passwords again (134bits, as usual). 10:05: Website has been taken offline to prevent further access. 09:30: I opened an E-Mail about a potential data breach, including samples (email and hashed passwords), got in contact with the sender to proof the data.

Sadly the data was valid. He sent me the whole dump - email, password hashed and in clear text. We encrypted the passwords in md5 + salt. Diese DatenschutzerklĂ€rung klĂ€rt Sie ĂŒber die Art, den Umfang und Zweck der Verarbeitung von personenbezogenen Daten (nachfolgend kurz „Daten“) innerhalb unseres Onlineangebotes und der mit ihm verbundenen Webseiten, Funktionen und Inhalte sowie externen OnlineprĂ€senzen, wie z.B.

Arten der verarbeiteten Daten:

Ok, so how do we actually set up the Diffuse?

You can either use a color by clicking on the color swatch (green rectangle), or you can set up a Map by clicking on the small square next to the color swatch (orange rectangle). You can also scroll down to the Maps tab and assign the texture there. Most Maps in V-Ray work this way.

unser Social Media Profile auf (nachfolgend gemeinsam bezeichnet als „Onlineangebot“). Im Hinblick auf die verwendeten Begrifflichkeiten, wie z.B. „Verarbeitung“ oder „Verantwortlicher“ verweisen wir auf die Definitionen im Art. 4 der Datenschutzgrundverordnung (DSGVO). Hoppe & Schrenk Marketing GbREnzring 52, 75323 Bad Wildbad Vertretungsberechtigte: Dennis Hoppe, Marco Schrenk Kontakt: [email protected] .

Bestandsdaten (z.B., Namen, Adressen). Kontaktdaten (z.B., E-Mail). Inhaltsdaten (z.B., Texteingaben, Materialien). Nutzungsdaten (z.B., besuchte Webseiten, Interesse an Inhalten, Zugriffszeiten).

Meta-/Kommunikationsdaten (z.B., GerÀte-Informationen, IP-Adressen). Kategorien betroffener Personen.

Besucher und Nutzer des Onlineangebotes (Nachfolgend bezeichnen wir die betroffenen Personen zusammenfassend auch als „Nutzer“).

Zweck der Verarbeitung. ZurverfĂŒgungstellung des Onlineangebotes, seiner Funktionen und Inhalte. Beantwortung von Kontaktanfragen und Kommunikation mit Nutzern.

„Personenbezogene Daten“ sind alle Informationen, die sich auf eine identifizierte oder identifizierbare natĂŒrliche Person (im Folgenden „betroffene Person“) beziehen; als identifizierbar wird eine natĂŒrliche Person angesehen, die direkt oder indirekt, insbesondere mittels Zuordnung zu einer Kennung wie einem Namen, zu einer Kennnummer, zu Standortdaten, zu einer Online-Kennung (z.B. Cookie) oder zu einem oder mehreren besonderen Merkmalen identifiziert werden kann, die Ausdruck der physischen, physiologischen, genetischen, psychischen, wirtschaftlichen, kulturellen oder sozialen IdentitĂ€t dieser natĂŒrlichen Person sind.

„Verarbeitung“ ist jeder mit oder ohne Hilfe automatisierter Verfahren ausgefĂŒhrte Vorgang oder jede solche Vorgangsreihe im Zusammenhang mit personenbezogenen Daten.

Der Begriff reicht weit und umfasst praktisch jeden Umgang mit Daten. „Pseudonymisierung“ die Verarbeitung personenbezogener Daten in einer Weise, dass die personenbezogenen Daten ohne Hinzuziehung zusĂ€tzlicher Informationen nicht mehr einer spezifischen betroffenen Person zugeordnet werden können, sofern diese zusĂ€tzlichen Informationen gesondert aufbewahrt werden und technischen und organisatorischen Maßnahmen unterliegen, die gewĂ€hrleisten, dass die personenbezogenen Daten nicht einer identifizierten oder identifizierbaren natĂŒrlichen Person zugewiesen werden.


„Profiling“ jede Art der automatisierten Verarbeitung personenbezogener Daten, die darin besteht, dass diese personenbezogenen Daten verwendet werden, um bestimmte persönliche Aspekte, die sich auf eine natĂŒrliche Person beziehen, zu bewerten, insbesondere um Aspekte bezĂŒglich Arbeitsleistung, wirtschaftliche Lage, Gesundheit, persönliche Vorlieben, Interessen, ZuverlĂ€ssigkeit, Verhalten, Aufenthaltsort oder Ortswechsel dieser natĂŒrlichen Person zu analysieren oder vorherzusagen.

Aha, here comes the next problem. Notice the blurry areas on our model.

This blur is caused by Texture Filtering. It is used to avoid more artifacts on small, sharp patterns by blurring everything.

Obviously, this is not at all what we want. We want nice, crisp renders.

There are a couple of ways to solve this problem.

You can reduce the blur setting in the Bitmap Coordinates tab. Something like 0.01~0.6 is usually the most useable range.

Or you can disable the filtering altogether in the Bitmap Parameters tab. This works just as well for making everything sharper, but is not as flexible. Most of the time, you can try reducing the Blur so you can keep at least some control over the softness of the texture.

Als „Verantwortlicher“ wird die natĂŒrliche oder juristische Person, Behörde, Einrichtung oder andere Stelle, die allein oder gemeinsam mit anderen ĂŒber die Zwecke und Mittel der Verarbeitung von personenbezogenen Daten entscheidet, bezeichnet. „Auftragsverarbeiter“ eine natĂŒrliche oder juristische Person, Behörde, Einrichtung oder andere Stelle, die personenbezogene Daten im Auftrag des Verantwortlichen verarbeitet.

Verwendete Begrifflichkeiten

The Diffuse tab has one more option – Roughness. It controls how ‘flat’ the shading of your object looks.

There are not a lot of materials where it is useful, but some most common examples could be chalk and dust. Higher values – flatter look, use your eyes to make a judgement on how much the materials needs it.

Chaos VRScans - Annual

Nach Maßgabe des Art. 13 DSGVO teilen wir Ihnen die Rechtsgrundlagen unserer Datenverarbeitungen mit. Sofern die Rechtsgrundlage in der DatenschutzerklĂ€rung nicht genannt wird, gilt Folgendes: Die Rechtsgrundlage fĂŒr die Einholung von Einwilligungen ist Art. 7 DSGVO, die Rechtsgrundlage fĂŒr die Verarbeitung zur ErfĂŒllung unserer Leistungen und DurchfĂŒhrung vertraglicher Maßnahmen sowie Beantwortung von Anfragen ist Art. b DSGVO, die Rechtsgrundlage fĂŒr die Verarbeitung zur ErfĂŒllung unserer rechtlichen Verpflichtungen ist Art. c DSGVO, und die Rechtsgrundlage fĂŒr die Verarbeitung zur Wahrung unserer berechtigten Interessen ist Art.

Tools and Utilities

FĂŒr den Fall, dass lebenswichtige Interessen der betroffenen Person oder einer anderen natĂŒrlichen Person eine Verarbeitung personenbezogener Daten erforderlich machen, dient Art.

d DSGVO als Rechtsgrundlage. This site wouldn't be such a great vray material resource without the help of our community! People from around the world put there knowledge and love into their materials and uploaded them to our site to help and inspire others. If you want to contribute to this site too just follow these simple steps:. Download our Sample scene for Vray and 3DSMax here.

Maßgebliche Rechtsgrundlagen

Load the scene and apply your material to the sample object. Adjust the material if necessary (for lighting and stuff). Render the image with the preset settings. Save your render with a suitable name that represents your material (e.g. dark grey concrete, fine red leather, brushed steel).

Save your material as a single library, give it the same name .

Support Included

OR save the max file using the same name.

Send everything including all texture files, the sample render image and either the max-file or the .mat library file to this email address: [email protected] Important: Please be 100% sure that you own the rights on the created material and texture files. We must not publish textures or data that is protected by copyright.

By submitting your material to us you agree that it is free to use, private and commercially for everyone.

We will never sell or further distribute your creations except via download on our website. Thank you for supporting our free material resource! Enjoy what other users have already created for you. If you wish to remove one of your own created materials, send us an email to [email protected]

Products Included. The VRscans plugin is part of V-Ray (versions 3.5 and above) which provides the UI for importing, modifying, and using the VRscans materials in these supported platforms; V-Ray for 3ds Max, V-Ray for Maya, V-Ray for Sketchup, V-Ray for Cinema 4D, V-Ray for Rhino, V-Ray for Modo, V-Ray for Revit (partial support; please contact [email protected]).

Free Support from Below you will find categories of V-Ray materials.

  • To use one of the materials listed, click on the link which will take you to the material page and follow the steps below.
  • Also, Some of these materials are student work and may not have all required maps for good rendered results.
  • Any material branded with the "DTFA" logo (in the sample image) has been verified to work in Rhino 6/7 and V-Ray 3.6+.
  • Includes Siding, Stucco, etc.
  • For a list of all available blocks, click the button below.
  • For a list of all available blocks, click the button below.

2.2.3 Reflection Glossiness

This parameter controls how glossy our material looks. The higher the value, the higher the glossiness. Perfectly polished surface would have a glossiness of 1 (default value). Since nothing is ever perfect, don’t go higher than 0.99.

Decreasing glossiness makes the reflections blurrier. The effect is somewhat similar to taking a fine sandpaper to our shader and roughing the surface up. This comes with a cost, though: the more blurry your reflections get, the harder it is for Vray to calculate them, thus, the result is noisier and the render time increases. For very rough surfaces, try not to go lower than 0.35.

This gives us a useable range of 0.35-0.99

2.2.4 Unlinking Specular and Reflection Glossiness

This page introduces the different material types in V-Ray for 3ds Max. There are a number of different materials for use with V-Ray for 3ds Max. These materials are quite versatile and each can be used in a number of ways to achieve different looks as needed from simulating simple surface properties like plastics and metals to complex uses such as translucent objects, subsurface materials such as skin and even light emitting objects.

For more details on each material, please see the dedicated pages. UI Path: ||Material Editor window|| > Material/Map Browser > Materials > V-Ray . Starting with V-Ray 5 Update 2, VRayMtl, VRayFastSSS2, VRay2SidedMtl, VRayAlSurfaceMtl, VRayColor, VRayProxy and VRayClipper use QT for their GUI in 3ds Max versions 2018 and later.

2.2.5 Using Texture To Drive Glossiness

This means they will follow 3ds Max’s logic for RMB actions on the spinners. RMB will reset the values to minimum and Ctrl+right-click will set the values to their default. Additionally, V-Ray provides a number of utilities and standalone tools for working with materials:. Bake Vector Displacement – A utility material that allows you to generate displacement maps for Vector displacement when used along with texture baking.

It requires that you have a low poly base geometry and a high poly target geometry. You can then generate a map that when used with vector displacement turns the base geometry into the target geometry. Vector displacement, unlike standard displacement which displaces only in a positive or negative direction from the surface of the low poly base, allows displacement to occur in all 3 axes.

Thus instead of just being in a positive or negative direction, displacement can occur in many combined directions.

VRmat Converter– The V-Ray .vrmat converter can be used to convert materials in 3ds Max to .vrmat files which can be loaded using the VRayVRmatMtl material.

VRayParticleColor – It is an operator that creates additional color information for particles. It's only used in the shading of Metaballs surfaces defined by the particles. It can be added to any Particle Flow event. Since V-Ray 5.0, Beta 3, VRayHairMtl is no longer exposed in the UI.

2.2.6 Reflection Depth and Exit Color

Scenes containing V-RayHairMtl made with older versions of V-Ray will be loaded correctly. New VRayHairMtl cannot be made in the Material Editor or MaxScript with V-Ray 5.0.

We recommend using VRayHairNextMtl instead.

The default settings work well most of the time. If you have a lot of mirrors or other reflective objects, you might need to increase the max depth. Going higher than ~20 is usually unnecessary.

If your material has blurry reflections, you can make it render a bit faster without losing quality, by reducing the Max Depth as follows:

  • Glossiness 0.9-0.99 = max depth 5
  • Glossiness 0.8-0.89 = max depth 4
  • Glossiness 0.7-0.79 = max depth 3
  • Glossiness 0.6-0.69 = max depth 2
  • Glossiness 0.35-0.59 = max depth 1

Since the reflections are blurred, there will be no negative effects on the image. The values we’ve provided are more like a rough guide, so you can adjust them if needed.

2.2.7 Lesser Known Parameters

Interpolation is no longer needed, since it’s much faster and easier to use “light cache for glossy rays” in GI settings. Dim distance and affect channels are only used in some very specific cases (more related to scene optimization not material creation).

2.2.8 BRDF

BRDF is a mathematical model that’s used to calculate the reflections and specularity for your material. There are three types available for you to choose from: Blinn, Phong, and Ward. Each one has their own specific uses.

As you can see, the main difference is in the way they treat highlights. Phong is the sharpest, Blinn is a bit more blurred, and Ward much softer.

There really is no rule as to when to use what, but generally, use Ward for metals and anisotropic materials; use Blinn or Phong (whichever you prefer) for the rest. The only exception: it is not recommended to switch to Ward for metals is if the metal is highly polished (very sharp reflections, like chrome, gold jewelry, etc.).

2.2.9 Anisotropy

Anisotropy is used to simulate stretched out highlights. In the real world, they are caused by elongated micro-scratches that go in the same direction. Here are a couple of example photos. This effect is seen mostly on brushed metal.

Anisotropy should be set in an interval between -0.99 and 0.99.

Values of -1; 0 and 1 will not do anything.

The effect becomes stronger as the value approaches 1 (or -1). The difference between negative and positive values is the direction of the stretching. Positive values stretch reflections horizontally (simulates vertical scratch pattern). Negative values stretch the reflection vertically (simulates horizontal scratch pattern).

You can also rotate the the stretching effect to any angle you want by using the Rotation parameter.

For even more control, you can choose the axis that is used for calculations

For it to work correctly, Anisotropy needs blurred reflections. If your Reflection glossiness is set very high, the effect will not work.

Just like with other aspects of Vray, we can use Maps or Textures to drive the Anisotropy parameters as well.

You can use an Anisotropy texture with reduced strength to fine tune the exact amount of imperfection it introduces. Keep in mind, that texture maps only work as Positive values, so it’s best to combine them with positive Anisotropy strength. For example, we’re using Anisotropy 0.6 + 20% of a texture. The result looks a bit more natural than just pure Anisotropy.

Rotation maps can be used to change the direction of the simulated scratches. It’s good for creating things like circular patterns or metallic flakes that reflect light in random directions. Smooth gradients make the rotation gradual, while patches of different colors make the transitions sharp, with each shade of gray having a different rotation value.

2.2.10 The Options Tab (Reflections)

There are a few more things to learn about Reflections before moving on. Scroll down to the Options tab and look at the settings there.

The outlined options are all affecting the Reflections.

First of all, never turn off the Trace Reflections option, since it is essential for a realistic result. If you turn it off and use only the fake specular highlights, reflections are just that – round, fake highlights, regardless of the shape of the lights and the environment.

Next is “Reflect on back side.” By default, it is turned off. That’s fine for most materials, since it helps to cut down on the render time. However, if you are creating glass or other transparent materials, you have turn this option ON. Otherwise the result will not look realistic.

And finally, let’s look at the Energy Preservation mode. The default setting of RGB is physically correct, however, there might be some cases where the result is hard to predict
 for example, a white material with blue reflections.
The Reflection amount is subtracted from the Diffuse color. For example, lets take white Diffuse [230;230;230] and blue Reflections [0;0;230]. So, what do we get when we subtract? We get Yellow [230;230;0]. And that is exactly what we see when rendering this particular example.
Switch the EPM to Mono and you get a much more predictable result – white Diffuse and blue Reflections.
These types of materials are not common, and in fact, most of the time this would not be a problem at all. Change this option only if you have difficulty creating colored Reflections on top of a bright Diffuse color.

All Materials Index

Refractions control how the object lets the light through. Unlike Reflections, not all objects are refractive. Some typical examples that use this Vray material component are: glass, water, transparent plastic, crystal, oil, etc. (Basically, anything that you can shine a flashlight at and see at least a bit of light coming out the other side.)

The amount of Refraction can be controlled by a number, Map, or a Texture. It can be grayscale or colored, but it is recommended to stick to grayscale for realistic results.

If you are not using Caustics in your scene (most likely, you aren’t) turn on the “Affect Shadows” option to get realistic, transparent shadows. Otherwise, the shadows will be too dark.

2.3.1 Adding Color To Refraction

How do we actually get colored refractions, if it’s not recommended to use colors in the Refraction amount? Use the Fog color option. It works in a more realistic way, since thicker parts of the model will be more colored/darker than the thin parts.

Depending on your object’s physical size, you might need to adjust the Fog Multiplier Value. Larger objects will look darker than smaller ones when using the same material. It is the way it’s supposed to work and it’s physically accurate.

Use Fog Bias to control the color transitions. Lower values make the color more intense and the transitions sharper, while higher values make the tinting more even and weaker. If you adjust both of these parameters, Fog multiplier and Fog Bias, you should be able to achieve any effect you might need.

2.3.2 Refraction Glossiness

Refraction Glossiness simulates a rougher up surface by diffusing the light rays in different directions. Lower values create a rougher look (frosted or sand-blasted glass, or textured, rough plastic), higher values are for smooth surfaces. Since glossy Refractions are one of the biggest increases for render times, they are usually used in a smaller range. It’s usually not necessary to go lower than 0.7 to achieve the desired look.

You can use a Texture to create a rougher, more realistic look. If the material is still pretty clean, don’t overdo it and use a map that is mostly pure white with some darker spots/patches. It’s usually a good idea to keep the Refraction Glossiness map similar to the reflection glossiness. Any rougher areas would affect the Reflections and Refractions in a similar way.

Note – similar to Reflections, it’s best to leave the Subdivs at 8 for the end user to adjust themselves.

2.3.3 Refraction Depth and Exit Color

The Refraction Depth and Exit color function exactly the same as their Reflection counterparts. Bump up the max depth if there are a lot of refractive/reflective objects, and bring it down if you’re using blurry Refractions.

2.3.4 Refraction IOR

IOR is a very important parameter to set correctly for your material to look believable. Fortunately, these values have been calculated for all sorts of materials, so there’s no need to guess here.
With the Value of 1 (same as air), the rays of light are going straight through the object without any distortion, as you raise the number higher, the rays get distorted more and more.

  • Acetone 1.36
  • Agate 1.544
  • Air 1.0002926
  • Alcohol 1.329
  • Amber 1.546
  • Amethyst 1.544
  • Crystal 2.00
  • Diamond 2.417
  • Emerald 1.576
  • Ethanol 1.36
  • Glass 1.51714
  • Glass, Albite 1.4890
  • Glass, Crown 1.520
  • Glass, Crown, Zinc 1.517
  • Glass, Flint, Dense 1.66
  • Glass, Flint, Heaviest 1.89
  • Glass, Flint, Heavy 1.65548
  • Glass, Flint, Lanthanum 1.80
  • Glass, Flint, Light 1.58038
  • Glass, Flint, Medium 1.62725
  • Ice 1.309
  • Jade, Nephrite 1.610
  • Jadeite 1.665
  • Methanol 1.329
  • Moonstone, Albite 1.535
  • Nylon 1.53
  • Onyx 1.486
  • Opal 1.450
  • Plastic 1.460
  • Plexiglas 1.50
  • Polystyrene 1.55
  • Quartz 1.544
  • Quartz, Fused 1.45843
  • Rock Salt 1.544
  • Ruby 1.760
  • Sapphire 1.760
  • Tiger eye 1.544
  • Topaz 1.620
  • Tourmaline 1.624
  • Turpentine 1.472
  • Turquoise 1.610
  • Water 35â€ČC (Room temp) 1.33
  • Zirconia, Cubic 2.170

2.3.5 Breaking the Rules

Technically, both the Reflection and Refraction IOR should be the same, but sometimes, you might want to unlock them for artistic reasons. This trick is used when a glass or transparent plastic material just seems to lack reflections. In this case, bumping up the Reflection IOR can help in bringing out those reflections. It’s also useful when you want to create a more even distribution of the reflections, without increasing their intensity.

2.3.6 Dispersion

Dispersion controls how the light is split up into different colors, when passing through an object. A classic example would be a ray of light going through a prism, creating a rainbow effect. Most glass and other refractive materials show at least a little bit of dispersion. The exact amount is controlled by the Abbe number (Google this for specific materials, for example, “diamond abbe number”). The basic idea is that as the Abbe number goes lower, the dispersion effect increases. It’s easy to overdo it, but it should actually be pretty subtle.

2.3.7 Refraction and Alpha Channels

For Refractive objects, it is generally a good idea to set the “Affect Channels” to “All Channels.” This way, your alpha channel will not be solid white, but it will get adjusted depending on the transparency of the object. (This is really useful to have for post-production.)


It is possible to add Translucency to your VrayMtl, but we recommend using VrayFastSSS2 material if you need this effect. The reason for this is that it is a newer, faster interpretation of Subsurface Scattering that is also more adjustable.

If you do decide to use the Translucency in the regular Vray material, here are a couple of things to remember.

  • The material needs to be refractive for translucency to work
  • Set the IOR to 1
  • Make sure that ‘Double Sided’ is turned Off in the Options tab
  • Reduce the Refraction Glossiness to something like 0.15~0.5
  • To define the outer color of the object, use the Diffuse color

To define the inner color, use Fog color, just like you would for refractive materials.

You can also additionally tint the inside of the material by using the Backface color.

Stick to the Hard Wax or Hybrid type (soft water is just for legacy vray version compatibility).

You can reduce the depth of the scattered rays by using the Thickness parameter.

Scatter Coefficient changes the way the light rays travel within the object. 0 means that the rays get scattered in all directions; 1 means the rays continue to move the same direction, as they did before entering the object.

Light multiplier allows you to change the strength of the light as it moves inside the object.

The amount of Refraction can be controlled by a number, Map or a Texture. It can be grayscale or colored, but it is recommended to stick to grayscale only for realistic results.

If you are not using Caustics in your scene (most likely you aren’t) turn on the “Affect Shadows” option to get realistic, transparent shadows. Otherwise, the shadows will be too dark.


Bump is another very important component of a Vray material. All objects should have some sort of Bump, even if it’s just a very weak one. The thing is, nothing is ever completely flat, round or in any other perfect shape. Even the smoothest, nicest surface has a bit of an imperfection to it.

The way it works is very simple – you just add a Map or a Texture to the Bump slot and adjust the strength.

Medium gray [128;128;128] does nothing, while lighter values go up and darker values go down (relative to the surface normals).

For very strong Bump effect or for situations where correct shape in the profile of the object is needed, it’s better to use Displacement (either in a material slot or as a VrayDisplacement Modifier). Bump is a fake effect, while Displacement produces actual geometry at rendertime.

Just keep in mind that displacement works only in positive direction, with black being the original shape of the object, while everything lighter than that gets displaced upwards.

2.5.1 Be Mindful of Gamma

If you want your Bump or Displacement to be accurate, you need to load your grayscale image with Gamma 1.0. Otherwise, the Gamma corrected tones do not produce the expected result. For example, in this image, the Gamma 2.2 corrected texture bumps the white color more than the black, while the Gamma 1.0 image behaves as expected.

2.5.2 Normal Maps

If you are using Normal maps in your workflow, you have to set up a Normal Bump map in the Bump slot. This will allow you to use the Normal map + an additional Bump map. You can adjust the strength of each one individually. Normal maps also require their Gamma to be set up at 1.0 for correct results.

2.5.3 Boosting Realism

It is recommended that you add a Bump map to all the materials you create. It doesn’t always have to be strong or detailed. Sometimes a simple Noise map can help a lot in avoiding that ‘fake’ or ‘CG’ look.

3 Basic Workflow

To wrap up, let’s go through one example workflow for creating a material from scratch. It’s not set in stone, and you can change the order around as long as you pay attention to the general principles.

It’s always a good idea to have a reference photo (or multiple photos) so you see what the end goal is. Don’t use a reference to make an exact replica, but as a guide to create a similar look.

3.1 Diffuse

First of all, we need to decide on the Diffuse color. You can roughly split all materials into 3 groups Reflective (Metals), Refractive (Glass, Water, etc) and Other (almost everything else). For Reflective and Refractive materials you don’t have to think too much and you can just choose a dark gray color like [1;1;1]. Since our reference photo seems to be some sort of plastic (Other), we need to visually choose a color for its Diffuse. Something like this blue/black will do.

3.2 Reflections

The next step is to add some Reflections. Don’t try to add all the little details just yet; at this point, the Reflections will only help to evaluate the shader better. Start with a simple color [180;180;180] and set the Fresnel IOR to 1.45 (plastic).

Estimate the general Glossiness at this point. The goal is to roughly match the size and shape of the highlights on the reference photo. Seems like 0.85 does the trick.

3.3 Adding a Bump Map

Let’s try and imitate the way this ball has been used and abused, so that it will have scratches and rough spots. Pick a similar texture and use Levels in Photoshop to make it so that all the bumps and scratches are black/dark grey and the base color is [128;128;128].
Use this map in the Bump slot and reduce the Blur to about 0.5 to make everything a bit sharper. Reduce or increase the Bump strength until it looks right.

3.4 Adding a Reflect Map

Now we need to think about how this sort of damage would affect our Reflections. It would probably make them a little bit weaker and blurrier, since the scratches are not smoothly polished, but more rough (at least the deeper ones).

So take the bump map and adjust the levels so that the white point is at 180. Move up the black point to about 150. Since there are probably some areas that are also a bit dirty or oily, add another layer on top of this map with some patchy areas and set it to Overlay mode.

3.5 Adding a Gloss Map

For the Glossiness map, calculate the value needed to match the test render. In this case, it’s set at 0.85, so we need 255*0.85=216 as the main color for the texture. Also move the black point to 128, so the lowest glossiness level is about 0.5 (255*0.5=128). Now that it’s done, perhaps add another overlay layer on top to add some slightly different details.
Make sure you set the Gamma to 1 for these b&w maps to get correct values in 3ds Max. Reduce the blur to about 0.4.
This is starting to look better.

3.6 Adding Complexity to a Bump Map

Now all that’s left is adding another layer to our Bump texture – some sort of noise for a more realistic surface. We just added another layer in Photoshop, but you can also set up a Composite map in 3ds Max and overlay procedural noise there.

3.7 Adding Even More Texture

Almost there! Swap the Diffuse color for a Texture as the final touch. A few gray/brown patches on top of dark blue will be a good fit.

This looks about right. Perhaps the scratch pattern is a bit rougher than the reference image, but otherwise, it seems to look good.

3.8 Summary

Try to analyze your reference image and break it down into components: Diffuse; Reflection; Refraction; Bump. If something is not clear right away (for example, bump), add some reflections and it will be much easier to evaluate the other aspects. Everything goes hand-in-hand, so don’t forget to analyze how each element affects the others.

Special thanks to Austris Čingulis from for helping us create this material tutorial.