When trying to install Chocolatey behind a proxy server, you may be faced with errors like. Get Response returned: (407) Proxy Authentication Required. The underlying connection was closed: Could not establish trust relationship for the SSL / TLS secure channel.
Steps to help address this:. Copy the install.ps1 file locally.
Open a PowerShell command line. Set the following environment variables - $env:chocolateyProxyLocation (with proxyserver:proxyport), $env:chocolateyProxyUser (if it is a domain account, ensure you have the appropriate domain prefix for the account, e.g.
AD\UserName or UserName), and $env:chocolateyProxyPassword with your password. With that same shell open where the environment variables are set, run the downloaded script to install Chocolatey.
Method3: Load Balancing with Two Origin Servers
Method 1: Reverse proxy using Rewrite
In PowerShell, it looks like this:. 📝 NOTE This will only work with the installation methods that call https://community.chocolatey.org/install.ps1 (or use a similar script, like Puppet/Chef scripts do) as part of the install. You've tried everything and Chocolatey still won't install from https://community.chocolatey.org -. The underlying connection was closed: Could not establish trust relationship for the SSL / TLS secure channel.
It could also be that your trusted root certificates are missing or not up to date (Windows 2012 does not install root certificates by default).
Explicit Proxy Settings at Runtime
You will need to download and install the following certificates into your LocalMachine's Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store. To access community.chocolatey.org:. Go Daddy Secure Certificate Authority - G2 (File: gdroot-g2.crt; Thumbprint: 47BEABC922EAE80E78783462A79F45C254FDE68B). (On the download page, this certificate is named GoDaddy Class 2 Certification Authority Root Certificate - G2 and its listed thumbprint (45140B3247EB9CC8C5B4F0D7B53091F73292089E6E5A63E2749DD3ACA9198EDA) is wrong.
To access packages.chocolatey.org:. AddTrust External CA Root (File: addtrustexternalcaroot.crt; Thumbprint: 02FAF3E291435468607857694DF5E45B68851868). Chocolatey by default already supports system set proxy servers.
📝 NOTE Unfortunately proxy bypass lists may not be available when using this method. We recommend explicit proxy settings. Starting with Chocolatey v0.10.4, Chocolatey will automatically pick up the following environment variables if they are already set:.
Chocolatey has explicit proxy support starting with 0.9.9.9. You can simply configure 1 up to 5 settings and Chocolatey will use a proxy server. proxy is required and is the location and port of the proxy server. The values for user/password are only used for credentials when both are present. Running the following commands in 0.9.9.9:.
Existing Proxy Environment Variables
Results in the following items being added to the config file:. Starting in 0.10.4, you can pass proxy information at runtime with each command.
- See https://github.com/chocolatey/choco/issues/1173. It may just work. It hasn't been validated yet. A reverse proxy is a type of proxy server that takes HTTP(S) requests and transparently distributes them to one or more backend servers.
- Reverse proxies are useful because many modern web applications process incoming HTTP requests using backend application servers. These servers aren’t meant to be accessed by users directly, and often only support rudimentary HTTP features. You can use a reverse proxy to prevent these underlying application servers from being directly accessed. They can also be used to distribute the load from incoming requests to several different application servers, increasing performance at scale and providing fail-safeness.
They can fill in the gaps with features the application servers don’t offer, such as caching, compression, or SSL encryption. In this tutorial, you’ll set up Apache as a basic reverse proxy using the mod_proxy extension to redirect incoming connections to one or several backend servers running on the same network.
This tutorial uses a simple backend written with the with Flask web framework, but you can use any backend server you prefer.
To follow this tutorial, you will need:. One Ubuntu 16.04 server set up with this initial server setup tutorial, including a sudo non-root user and a firewall.
Apache 2 installed on your server by following Step 1 of How To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack on Ubuntu 16.04.
- Apache has many modules bundled with it that are available but not enabled in a fresh installation.
- First, you’ll need to enable the ones you’ll use in this tutorial.
- The modules you need are mod_proxy itself and several of its add-on modules, which extend its functionality to support different network protocols. Specifically, you will use:. mod_proxy, the main proxy module Apache module for redirecting connections; it allows Apache to act as a gateway to the underlying application servers.
- mod_proxy_http, which adds support for proxying HTTP connections.
mod_proxy_balancer and mod_lbmethod_byrequests, which add load balancing features for multiple backend servers. To enable these four modules, execute the following commands in succession. To put these changes into effect, restart Apache. Apache is now ready to act as a reverse proxy for HTTP requests. In the next (optional) step, you will create two very basic backend servers.
These will help us verify if the configuration works properly, but if you already have your own backend application(s), you can skip to Step 3.
Running some simple backend servers is an easy way to test if your Apache configuration is working properly. Here, you’ll make two test servers which respond to HTTP requests by printing a line of text.
Some of the Uses of reverse proxies
One server will say Hello world! and the other will say Howdy world!
This will let us test load balancing between multiple services.
Note: In non-test setups, backend servers usually all return the same kind of content. However, for this test in particular, having the two servers return different messages makes it easy to check that the load balancing mechanism uses both.
Flask is a Python microframework for building web applications. You’re using Flask to create the test servers because a basic application requires just a few lines of code.
You don’t need to know Python to set these up, but if you’d like to learn, you can look at these Python tutorials.
Points to Remember:
Update the packages list first. Then install Pip, the recommended Python package manager.
Use Pip to install Flask. Now that all the required components are installed, start by creating a new file that will contain the code for the first backend server in the home directory of the current user.
Copy the following code into the file, then save and close it. The first two lines initialize the Flask framework.
There is one function, home(), which returns a line of text (Hello world!). The @app.route('/') line above the home() function definition tells Flask to use home()'s return value as a response to HTTP requests directed at the / root URL of the application.
The second backend server is exactly the same as the first, aside from returning a different line of text, so start by duplicating the first file.
Open the newly copied file. Change the message to be returned from Hello world!
to Howdy world!, then save and close the file. The script will now look like this:. Use the following command to start the first background server on port 8080.
This also redirects Flask’s output to /dev/null because it would cloud the console output further on.
Here, you are preceding the flask command by setting the FLASK_APP environment variable in the same line. Environment variables are a convenient way to pass information into processes that are spawned from the shell.
You can learn more about environment variables in How To Read and Set Environmental and Shell Variables on a Linux VPS.
Installing Chocolatey behind a proxy server
Example 2 — Load Balancing Across Multiple Backend Servers
In this case, using an environment variable makes sure the setting applies only to the command being run and will not stay available afterwards, as you will be passing another filename the same way to tell flask command to start the second server.
Similarly, use this command to start the second server on port 8081. Note the different value for the FLASK_APP environment variable.
You can test that the two servers are running using curl. Test the first server:.
This will print the response from the server:. Test the second server:. As before, this will print the response from the server:. Note: To close both test servers after you no longer need them, like when you finish this tutorial, you can simply execute killall flask.
In the next step, you’ll modify Apache’s configuration file to enable its use as a reverse proxy.
Example 1 — Reverse Proxying a Single Backend Server
In this section, you will set up the default Apache virtual host to serve as a reverse proxy for a single backend server or an array of load balanced backend servers. Note: In this tutorial, you’re applying the configuration at the virtual host level.
On a default installation of Apache, there is only a single, default virtual host enabled.
However, you can use all those configuration fragments in other virtual hosts as well. To learn more about virtual hosts in Apache, you can read this How To Set Up Apache Virtual Hosts on Ubuntu 16.04 tutorial.
If your Apache server acts as both HTTP and HTTPS server, your reverse proxy configuration must be placed in both the HTTP and HTTPS virtual hosts.
- To learn more about SSL with Apache, you can read this How To Create a Self-Signed SSL Certificate for Apache in Ubuntu 16.04 tutorial. Open the default Apache configuration file using nano or your favorite text editor. Inside that file, you will find the
block starting on the first line.
- The first example below explains how to configure this block to reverse proxy for a single backend server, and the second sets up a load balanced reverse proxy for multiple backend servers.
- Replace all the contents within VirtualHost block with the following, so that your configuration file looks like this:.
- If you’ve followed along with the example servers in Step 2, use 127.0.0.1:8080 as written in the block above.
- If you have your own application servers, use their addresses instead. There are three directives here:.
- ProxyPreserveHost makes Apache pass the original Host header to the backend server.
This is useful, as it makes the backend server aware of the address used to access the application. ProxyPass is the main proxy configuration directive.
In this case, it specifies that everything under the root URL (/) should be mapped to the backend server at the given address.
For example, if Apache gets a request for /example, it will connect to http://your_backend_server/example and return the response to the original client.
System Proxy Settings
ProxyPassReverse should have the same configuration as ProxyPass. It tells Apache to modify the response headers from the backend server. This makes sure that if the backend server returns a location redirect header, the client’s browser will be redirected to the proxy address and not the backend server address, which would not work as intended.
To put these changes into effect, restart Apache.
Now, if you access http://your_server_ip in a web browser, you will see your backend server response instead of the standard Apache welcome page.
- If you followed Step 2, this means you’ll see Hello world!
- If you have multiple backend servers, a good way to distribute the traffic across them when proxying is to use the load balancing features of mod_proxy.
- Replace all the contents within the VirtualHost block with the following, so that your configuration file looks like this:.
- The configuration is similar to the previous one, but instead of specifying a single backend server directly, you’ve used an additional Proxy block to define multiple servers.
- The block is named balancer://mycluster (the name can be freely altered) and consists of one or more BalancerMembers, which specify the underlying backend server addresses.
- The ProxyPass and ProxyPassReverse directives use the load balancer pool named mycluster instead of a specific server. If you followed along with the example servers in Step 2, use 127.0.0.1:8080 and 127.0.0.1:8081 for the BalancerMember directives, as written in the block above.
If you have your own application servers, use their addresses instead. To put these changes into effect, restart Apache. If you access http://your_server_ip in a web browser, you will see your backend servers’ responses instead of the standard Apache page. If you followed Step 2, refreshing the page multiple times should show Hello world!
and Howdy world!, meaning the reverse proxy worked and is load balancing between both servers.
You now know how to set up Apache as a reverse proxy to one or many underlying application servers.
mod_proxy can be used effectively to configure a reverse proxy to application servers written in a vast array of languages and technologies, such as Python and Django or Ruby and Ruby on Rails.
It can be also used to balance traffic between multiple backend servers for sites with lots of traffic, to provide high availability through multiple servers, or to provide secure SSL support to backend servers not supporting SSL natively.
Why Reverse Proxy
While mod_proxy with mod_proxy_http is the perhaps most commonly used combination of modules, there are several others that support different network protocols. You didn’t use them here, but some other popular modules include:. mod_proxy_ftp for FTP. mod_proxy_connect for SSL tunneling. mod_proxy_ajp for AJP (Apache JServ Protocol), such as Tomcat-based backends. mod_proxy_wstunnel for web sockets.
To learn more about mod_proxy, you can read the official Apache mod_proxy documentation. Proxy, In general terms it means “a person who is authorized to act for another”. In Server infrastructure, a Proxy Server do the same thing, It stands in for some other server, which should be kept away and hidden for so many reasons.