Slate Asbestos Siding

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Roofing material is the outermost layer on the roof of a building, sometimes self-supporting, but generally supported by an underlying structure.

A building's roofing material provides shelter from the natural elements. The outer layer of a roof shows great variation dependent upon availability of material, and the nature of the supporting structure. Those types of roofing material which are commercially available range from natural products such as thatch and slate to commercially produced products such as tiles and polycarbonate sheeting.

Roofing materials may be placed on top of a secondary water-resistant material called underlayment.

Steep Roof Materials are roofs that are only recommended where water can freely and openly drain off the edge of the roof without retaining water for too long.[1] The aim is to drain off water completely due to the high water permeability of most of these materials, for instance: the Thatched roofs.

Asphalt shingles[edit]

In areas where the International Build Code or similar is utilized, the minimum slope required is 2:12, though some countries extend this as high as 4:12. Thatch roofing is typically made of plant stalks in overlapping layers. Wheatstraw, widely used in England, France, and other parts of Europe.

Cost to remodel a house
AreaAverage cost
Whole house (low-end)$15,000 – $40,000
Whole house (mid-range)$40,000 – $75,000
Whole house (high-end)$75,000 – $200,000
Full gut to studs & remodel$100,000 – $200,000
House exterior$6,000 – $20,000
Roofing$5,000 – $11,000
Kitchen$10,000 – $50,000
Bathroom$5,000 – $25,000
Bedroom / living room$1,500 – $10,000
Basement / attic$20,000 – $75,000

Seagrass, used in coastal areas where there are estuaries such as Scotland. Has a longer life than straw.

Claimed to have a life in excess of 60 years. Rye straw, commonly used in a barn. Raffia palm leaves; a well organised raffia palm leaves is mainly used as roof houses in Nigeria, especially among the Igbo.

Rice straw, commonly used in Eastern Asia. Water reed, commonly used in Ireland for thatching.

Average home renovation cost
National Average Cost$44,850
Minimum Cost$5,000
Maximum Cost$200,000
Average Range$19,785to$73,198
  1. 'Shingles" is the generic term for an individual roofing unit that is applied with other such units in an overlapping fashion.[2].
  2. Wood shingle, shingles sawn from bolts of wood such as red cedar which has a useful performance life expectancy of up to 30 years.
  3. However, young growth red cedar has a short life expectancy and high cost.
  4. In the United States and Canada, eastern white cedar is also used.
  5. Some hardwoods were very durable roofing found in Colonial Australian and American colonial architecture; their use is now usually limited to building restoration.
  6. All wood shingles benefit by being allowed to breathe (dry out from below).

Metal shingles[edit]

Shake (shingle), Are different than wood shingles in that they are split on one side and sawed on the back side. Commonly referred to as "resawn shakes". A cedar shake is not the same as a cedar shingle.[3].

Home renovation cost estimator
TypeAverage costRenovations
Low-end$15,000 – $40,000Cosmetic work like painting, landscaping, trim, molding, and flooring, stock cabinetry, inexpensive appliances and countertops.
Mid-range$40,000 – $75,000Low-end options + above-average materials and appliances, full bathroom and kitchen remodel, new light fixtures, exterior siding, hardwood flooring.
High-end$75,000 – $200,000Mid-range options + high-end materials and appliances, custom cabinetry with built-ins, custom closets, structural and foundation repair, layout changes, HVAC and roof replacement, basement or attic conversion to living space, professional interior design.

Wood shingles[edit]

Asphalt shingle made of bitumen embedded in an organic or fiberglass mat, usually covered with colored, man-made ceramic grit. Cheaper than slate or tiles. The reduced cost of this particular style of roofing is especially apparent in its application and removal.

Remodel cost per square foot
TypeCost per square foot
Whole house remodel$15 – $60
Full house gut to studs & remodel$60 – $150
Tear down house and rebuild$104 – $165
Remodel kitchen and bathrooms$100 – $250

Installation is very streamlined and a rapid process. Depending on the size of the roof and the experience of the crew, it is possible to remove old shingles and apply new ones on 2-3 houses in one day.

Life span varies. Use only on slanted roofs.[4].

Fibre cement shingles[edit]

Rubber shingle, an alternative to asphalt shingle, slate, shake or tile. Made primarily of rubber, often recycled tire-derived rubber. Other typical ingredients include binders, UV (ultraviolet light) inhibitors and color.

Whole house renovation cost by size
Square feetTypical rangeAverage cost
1,000$15,000 – $60,000$20,000
1,200$18,000 – $72,000$24,000
1,500$20,000 – $85,000$30,000
1,800$25,000 – $100,000$45,000
2,000$28,000 – $115,000 $50,000
2,500$35,000 – $135,000$62,000
3,000$40,000 – $160,000$75,000
3,500$45,000 – $180,000$87,000
4,000$50,000 – $210,000$100,000

Warranted and designed to last at least 50 years in most cases. Asbestos shingles. Very long lifespan, fireproof, and low cost but now rarely used because of health concerns.[5].

Plastic shingles[edit]

Heavy stone slabs (not to be confused with slate) 1–2 inches thick were formerly used as roofing tiles in some regions in England, the Alps, and Scandinavia. Stone slabs require a very heavyweight roof structure, but their weight makes them stormproof.

Cost to renovate a house by bedrooms
TypeCost range
2 bedroom house$15,000 – $75,000
3 bedroom house$20,000 – $100,000
4 bedroom house$40,000 – $180,000

Other components[edit]

An obsolete roofing material, now used commercially only for building restoration.Collyweston stone slate named after the village of Collyweston. Collyweston stone slate named after the village of Collyweston.

Renovation cost calculator by home type
Home typeCost per square foot
Condo$40 – $125
Apartment$25 – $60
Row house$25 – $75
Bungalow$35 – $80
Farmhouse$20 – $100
Townhouse$25 – $150
Victorian$50 – $200
Historical$100 – $400

Cedar shingles[edit]

Metal shakes or shingles. High cost, suitable for roofs of 3:12 pitch or greater. Because of the flexibility of metal, they can be manufactured to lock together, giving durability and reducing assembly time.

For a discussion of copper system shingles, see Copper in architecture#Wall cladding. While slates have high cost, they have a life expectancy of 80 to 400 years.

Home remodeling costs calculator by room
RoomAverage cost
Exterior$6,000 – $20,000
Living room$2,500 – $10,000
Bedroom$1,500 – $5,000
Kitchen$10,000 – $50,000
Bathroom$5,000 – $25,000
Roof$4,700 – $10,500
Basement$20,000 – $50,000
Attic$25,000 – $75,000
Whole house*$30,000 – $120,000

*Whole house prices excluding optional attic and basement renovations.

See the article slate industry for an overview including names of quarries.


Some of the famous quarries where the highest quality slate comes from that are available in Australia are Bethesda in Wales and areas of Spain. Tile roofing traditionally consists of locally available materials such as clay, granite, terracotta or slate, though many modern applications contain concrete.

Cost to redo exterior of house
AreaAverage cost
Landscaping costs$500 – $4,000
Exterior painting costs$1,800 – $3,200
Siding costs$2,800 – $15,800
Screened in porch costs$600 – $3,500
Paver patio costs$1,900 – $6,800
New deck costs$2,500 – $10,000
Fence installation costs$1,500 – $3,400
Concrete slab costs$700 – $3,500
Sprinkler system costs$1,900 – $3,800
Retaining wall costs$2,500 – $6,700
New garage door costs$800 – $1,400
Exterior door installation costs$500 – $1,900

Low Slope Roofing Materials[edit]

Imbrex and tegula, style dating back to ancient Greece and Rome. Monk and nun, a style similar to Imbrex and tegula, but basically using two Imbrex tiles. Dutch roof tiles, Netherlands. Mangalore tiles, India.

Living room remodel cost
RemodelAverage cost
Interior painting costs$600 – $2,000
Flooring installation costs$1,600 – $4,600
Fireplace installation costs$1,000 – $5,000
Crown molding costs$400 – $1,100
Plantation shutters cost$150 – $500 per window
Carpet installation costs$250 – $800
Interior designer costs$500 – $1,500
Window replacement costs$400 – $800 per window

Etymology and nomenclature[edit]

Metal roofing is any of a large variety of roof coverings made from metal and is characterized by its high resistance, impermeability, and longevity. While there are an infinite variety of how to produce metal roofing, thicknesses, and types for metal/finishes used, roofing is generally grouped into 2 categories: Exposed Fastener Panels and Hidden Fastener Panels.

Bedroom remodel cost calculator
RenovationAverage cost
Paint a room$350 – $1,400
Flooring / carpet$300 – $2,000
Trim & moldings$500 – $1,500
Ceiling fan$150 – $350
Install drywall$600 – $1,200
Custom closet$2,000 – $6,000
Interior design / furnishings$2,000 – $6,000

Stone shingles[edit]

Exposed Fastener panels are held down by fasteners through the outside of the metal, whereas Hidden Fastener Panels are held by hidden fasteners, clips, and sometimes adhesives. Typical metals include Galvanized Steel, Galvalume, Aluminum, Copper, or Vinyl 9Which while not metal is included in many cases for its matching profiles).

Kitchen remodeling costs
TypeAverage costRenovations
Minor$5,000 – $20,000Mainly cosmetic; updating countertops, light fixtures, flooring, backsplash, refacing cabinets, and painting.
Mid-range$29,000 – $64,000Upgrading appliances, cabinets, kitchen island, countertops, flooring, light fixtures, tile backsplash, and painting.
High-end$60,000 – $125,000Redesigned floor plan, custom cabinetry and tilework, new appliances and fixtures, upgraded plumbing and electrical work, granite countertops, hardwood flooring.

Corrugated galvanised iron is galvanised steel manufactured with wavy corrugations to resist lateral flexing and fitted with exposed fasteners.

Widely used for low cost and durability. Sheds are normally roofed with this material.

Gal iron or Corro was the most extensively used roofing material of 20th century Australia, now replaced in popularity by steel with longer-lasting, coloured, alloy coatings.

Kitchen remodel budget breakdown
ItemBudgetAverage cost
Cabinetry35%$5,250 – $17,500
Design & labor20%$3,000 – $10,000
Appliances12%$1,800 – $6,000
Countertops11%$1,650 – $5,500
Lighting & electrical9%$1,350 – $4,500
Flooring7%$1,050 – $3,500
Walls & ceilings3%$450 – $1,500
Plumbing3%$450 – $1,500
Total100%$15,000 – $50,000
  • Copper roofs can last for hundreds of years. Copper roofing offers durability, ease of fabrication, lighter weight than some other roofing materials, can be curved, low maintenance, corrosion resistance, low thermal movement, lightning protection, radio frequency shielding, and are 100% recyclable.
  • Copper roofs have a high initial cost but very long lifetime: tests on European copper roofs from the 18th Century showed that, in theory, copper roofs can last one thousand years.[6] Another advantage of copper roofing systems is that they are relatively easy to repair.
  • Standing-seam metal with concealed fasteners. Mechanically seamed metal with concealed fasteners contains sealant in seams for use on very low sloped roofs, suitable for roofs of low pitch such as 0.5/12 to 3/12 pitch.


Flat-seam metal with or without soldered seams. Steel coated with a coloured alloy of zinc and aluminium. Stone-coated metal roofing. Low Slope Materials include roofing materials that can be installed at below 2:12 slope, although in the majority of cases low slope materials can also be installed at steeper slopes.

Bathroom renovation costs
ItemAverage cost
Bathtub$800 – $6,000
Cabinets$600 – $3,900
Countertops$450 – $1,500
Flooring$800 – $3,500
Hardware, mirrors, fan, etc.$300 – $2,500
Lighting fixtures$150 – $1,500
Painting$150 – $500
Shower$800 – $8,000
Sink$200 – $1,500
Toilet$120 – $800
Total$4,370 – $29,700

Membrane roofing consists of large sheets, generally fused in some way at the joints to form a continuous surface.

Cured Thermoset membrane (e.g. EPDM rubber, Neoprene). Synthetic rubber Cured Thermosets are synthetic rubbers that have undergone the vulcanization or "Curing" process.

You will learn the following:

Seams of materials are bonded by adhesives or chemicals, which over time weaken and separate unless maintained or reinforced. The most commonly used Cured Elastomer membranes are Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (commonly EPDM) and Neoprene.[7].

Basement remodel costs
Square feetAverage cost
500$18,000 – $23,500
1,000$32,000 – $38,000
1,500$48,000 – $57,000

See also[edit]

Uncured Thermoset membrane (e.g. CSPE, CPE, NBP, PIB) Uncured elastomers are installed in a manner similar to thermoplastics in that they can be heat or solvent welded. The material then cures over time once exposed to the elements, and then exhibits the same qualities as vulcanized elastomers.

Attic renovation cost
MaterialAverage cost
Cost to finish an attic$25,000 – $75,000
Renovate finished attic$10,000 – $30,000
Attic insulation costs$800 – $2,800

The most commonly used Uncured Elastomers are Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE), Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE), Polyisobutylene (PIB), Nitrile Butadiene Polymer (NBP).

Thermoplastics (e.g. PVC, TPO) – Plastic sheets welded together with hot air, creating one continuous sheet membrane.

Steep Slope Roofing Materials[edit]

Lends itself well to both big box and small roof application because of its hot air weldability. This membrane is installed by two methods: 1.) Rolls of membrane are attached to the ridged insulation using a bonding adhesive; 2.) The edge of each roll is fastened through ridged insulation into structural deck, and the proceeding roll is lapped over the fasteners.

Roof remodeling cost
MaterialAverage cost
Asphalt shingles$3,600 – $10,800
Wood shake$8,000 – $24,000
Metal$8,000 – $24,000
Copper$22,000 – $50,000
Clay tile$15,000 – $45,000
Slate$15,000 – $45,000
Solar$22,000 – $65,000
The overlap is then heat-welded with hot air to create a mechanically fastened thermoplastic roof.


PVC is also known as IB.Vinyl roof membrane. Asphalt roll roofing including single and double coverage types. Acrylic Based liquid roofing. Silicone based liquid roofing. Neoprene Based liquid roofing. Butyl/Rubber Based liquid roofing.

Cost of gutting a house and remodeling
RenovationAverage cost
Gut a house to the studs$2,500 – $7,000
Complete gut and remodel$100,000 – $200,000

Insulations and Cover Boards[edit]

Modified Bitumen are long rolls of asphalt-based materials, that can be heat-welded, self-adhering asphalt-adhered, or installed with adhesive. Asphalt is mixed with polymers such as APP or SBS, then applied to fiberglass and/or polyester mat, seams sealed by locally melting the asphalt with heat, hot mopping of asphalt, or adhesive.

Metal roofing[edit]

Lends itself well to most applications. Built-Up Roofs consist of multiple plies of bitumen-coated organic felt, polyester felt, or coated fiberglass felts. Three to five plies of felt are laminated to each other and to the substrate with hot asphalt, coal tar pitch, or made-for-purpose cold adhesive.

Although the roof membrane can be left bare, it is typically covered with a thick flood coat of the bituminous adhesive and covered with gravel, mineral granules, or a reflective coating, each of which protects the BUR from ultraviolet (UV) light degradation (UV causes evaporation of tar and oxidation of asphalt).

Liquid roofing[edit]

Gravel not only provides UV protection, it also helps accommodate sudden temperature changes (thermal shock), protects the surface from hail and mechanical damage, and increases the weight of the roof system to resist wind blow-off.

Entire house renovation cost breakdown
RenovationAverage cost
Home addition$22,500 – $74,000
Change floor plan$750 – $3,000
Electrical work$2,000 – $9,000
Replumb or repipe house$2,500 – $6,000
HVAC replacement$4,800 – $12,400
Interior painting$1,200 – $4,000
Exterior painting$1,800 – $3,200
Wall removal$500 – $10,000
Update appliances$2,500 $10,000
Permits$200 – $3,000
Architect, designer, contractor labor10% – 30%


PTFE, (synthetic fluoropolymer) embedded in fibreglass. Concrete roofing is composed of concrete reinforced with fibers of some sort.

  • Structural concrete can also be used for flat roof constructions.
  • There are three main categories, precast/prestressed, cast-in-place and shell.
  • There are many types of precast/prestressed concrete roofing.
The following are the most common types.[8]. Double tees are the most common products for short spans up to 60 feet (18 m).

Membrane roofing[edit]

Hollow-core slabs are used when there is a need for flushed ceiling. T-beams are similar to double tees but can be used for span ranging from 30 feet (9.1 m) to 100 feet (30 m). Joists and planks are combination of using prestressed joists with prestressed planks.

Remodel vs. rebuild costs
RenovationCost per square footAverage cost
Cost to tear down a house$5 – $20$8,000 – $25,000
Cost to build a new house$100 – $300$155,000 – $400,000
Cost to gut and remodel$60 – $200$100,000 – $200,000

Drip edge[edit]

Keystone-shape joists can be used for up to 36-foot (11 m) spans and tee-shape joists can be used for up to 60-foot (18 m) span. Tar paper and felt paper. Synthetic underlayment.

  • Ice and water shield. Gyspum Roof Boards. Concrete Roof Boards.
  • Expanded Polystyrene (EPS). Extruded Polystyrene (XPS). Polyisocyanurate (ISO). Wood Fiber Insulation.

Concrete or fibre cement[edit]

Drip edge is a metal installed to the edges of a roof deck, after the roofing material is installed. The metal may be galvanized steel, aluminum, PVC, copper and possibly others.

Contractor pricing guide
ContractorAverage labor rates
General contractor costs10% – 15%
Residential laborer fees$30 – $50 per hour
Architect fees5% – 20%
$100 – $250 per hour
Interior designer cost$50 – $200 per hour
Kitchen designer fees$100 – $200 per hour
Painters charge$20 – $50 per hour
Plumbers hourly rates$45 – $150 per hour
Electrician hourly rates$40 – $100 per hour
HVAC labor rates$100 – $150 per hour
Landscaper costs$50 – $100 per hour
Carpenter costs$35 – $100 per hour

Modified bitumen[edit]

Reed thatch on the island of Sylt. Wooden shingles, Poland. A church roof under repair with terracotta tiles. Asphalt Shingles, United States. Corrugated iron, Australia. Sheet metal roof. Air-supported polyester roof, Michigan, US.

Gallery of stone shingles[edit]

Copper clad roof, MIT, United States. Stone roofs such as on a clochán or trullo. Mud roofs such as on beehive house. Sedum a plant used in green roofs. ^Construction and Roofing company Contractors in Canada. Pricedsales review (Report).

Ceramic tile[edit]

Retrieved 15 April 2022. ^Harris, Cyril M. Dictionary of Architecture and Construction, Third Edition, New York, McGraw Hill, 2000, p. ^"Grading and Manufacturing | Products | Cedar Shake and Shingle Bureau".

Underlayments[edit] Retrieved 28 October 2015. ^"2018 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE (IBC) - CHAPTER 15". International Code Council. Retrieved 29 March 2021. 1507.2.2 Slope. asphalt shingles shall only be use on roof slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope) or greater.

HVAC remodel costs
ItemAverage cost
New furnace installation costs$2,000 – $5,400
New AC unit costs$2,500 – $7,500
Heat pump installation costs$3,800 – $8,200
Ductwork replacement costs$1,400 – $5,600
Boiler installaton cost$2,200 – $10,000
Solar panel installation costs$11,000 – $35,000
Attic insulation costs$800 – $2,800

Built-up roof membrane (BUR)[edit]

^"Asbestos and your health". Better Health Channel. State Government of Victoria. September 2011.

Cost to update appliances
TypePrice rangeIncludes
Basic / standard$200 – $1,000Appliances such as a microwave, garbage disposal, or stove.
Energy Star rated$300 – $3,000Appliances like a dishwasher, freezer, fridge, and even lights. Some states offer tax rebates and incentives.
High-end / custom$1,000 – $5,000+High-quality appliances with features like Bluetooth connectivity and special sensors.

Slate roofs[edit]

Retrieved 26 October 2014. ^The glory of copper; Metal Roofing Magazine, December 2002/January 2003.

Complete Home Renovation Costs By Location
City, StateAverage cost per square foot
Seattle, WA$20 – $95
Boston, MA$25 – $115
Bay Area, CA$25 – $115
Long Island, NY$25 – $150
New York, NY$25 – $150
Chicago, IL$20 – $100
Los Angeles, CA$20 – $95
Denver, CO$20 – $80
Houston, TX$25 – $115
Atlanta, GA$20 – $100
Phoenix, AZ$18 – $90
Philadelphia, PA$18 – $85
Jacksonville, FL$15 – $60
Nashville, TN$18 – $70

*Prices vary drastically depending on the scope of the project.

^"Commercial Low Slope Roofing Materials Guide"(PDF).


National Roofing Contractors Association. Retrieved 22 April 2021. ^"Concrete Roof Systems Part 1: Precast/Prestressed Constructions"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 May 2015.

Permits are typically required for:

  • Retrieved 26 May 2015.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help).
  • Retrieved from "".
  • A shingle roof in Zakopane, Poland.
  • With an area of 6000 m2, it was one of the largest wooden shingle roofs in Europe.
  • Roof shingles are a roof covering consisting of individual overlapping elements.

Cost to remodel other buildings

These elements are typically flat, rectangular shapes laid in courses from the bottom edge of the roof up, with each successive course overlapping the joints below.

Apartment renovation cost

Shingles are held by the roof rafters and are made of various materials such as wood, slate, flagstone, metal, plastic, and composite materials such as fibre cement and asphalt shingles. Ceramic roof tiles, which still dominate in Europe and some parts of Asia, are still usually called tiles.

Apartment renovation cost
SizeAverage cost
Studio apartment$10,000 – $30,000
1 bedroom apartment$18,000 – $45,000
2 bedroom apartment$25,000 – $60,000

Mobile home remodel cost

Roof shingles may deteriorate faster and need to repel more water than wall shingles. They are a very common roofing material in the United States. Shingle is a corruption of German Schindel meaning a roofing slate.[1] Shingles historically were called tiles, and shingle was a term applied to wood shingles,[1] as is still mostly the case outside the US.

Mobile home remodel cost
ProjectAverage cost
Replacing windows$2,500 – $5,000
Roof replacement$2,100 – $4,700
Kitchen remodel$3,000 – $5,000
Bathroom remodel$2,000 – $8,000
Replacing HVAC$1,800 – $2,500
Painting$1,200 – $2,400
Rewiring electrical$1,600 – $3,800
Plumbing$2,000 – $4,000

Cost of renovating a 100-year-old house

Shingles are laid in courses, usually with each shingle offset from its neighbors. The first course is the starter course and the last being a ridge course or ridge slates for a slate roof. The ridge is often covered with a ridge cap, board, piece, or roll,[2] sometimes with a special ridge vent material.

Old house renovation price list
RenovationAverage cost
Replace windows$4,500 – $20,000
Electrical work$3,500 – $8,000
Electrical panel replacement$800 – $2,000
Replace plumbing$2,000 – $15,000
New foundation costs$20,000 – $40,000
Install central air conditioning$660 – $4,600
Foundation repair costs$2,318 – $6,750
Insulate walls$874 – $2,926
Install furnace$2,150 – $5,900
Install HVAC (includes AC, furnace)$4,820 – $9,350

Roof shingles are almost always highly visible and so are an important aspect of a building's aesthetics in patterns, textures and colors. Roof shingles, like other building materials on vernacular buildings, are typically of a material locally available.

Home renovation budget

The type of shingle is taken into account before construction because the material affects the roof pitch and construction method: Some shingles can be installed on lath where others need solid sheathing (sheeting) on the roof deck.

How much should I spend on house renovations?

All shingle roofs are installed from the bottom upward beginning with a starter course and the edge seams offset to avoid leaks. Many shingle installations benefit from being placed on top of an underlayment material such as asphalt felt paper to prevent leaks even from wind driven rain and snow and ice dams in cold climates.

At the ridge the shingles on one side of the roof simply extend past the ridge or there is a ridge cap consisting of boards, copper, or lead sheeting.

Home renovation budget
Area% of overall house value
Kitchen5% – 10%
Master bathroom5% – 7%
Guest bathroom / powder room1% – 4%
Master bedroom1% – 3%
Guest bedroom1% – 2%
Attic renovation repairs and insulation only0.5% – 1%
Attic conversion into finished room10% – 15%
Basement conversion into finished room10% – 15%
Living room1% – 3%
Dining room1% – 3%
Patio / deck1% – 5%

How much remodeling can be done with $100,000?

An asphalt shingle roof has flexible asphalt shingles as the ridge cap. Some roof shingles are non-combustible or have a better fire rating than others which influence their use, some building codes do not allow the use of shingles with less than a class-A fire rating to be used on some types of buildings.

30K vs. 50K vs. 100k renovation budget
  • Due to increased fire hazard, wood shingles and organic-based asphalt shingles have become less common than fiberglass-based asphalt shingles.
  • No shingles are water-tight so the minimum recommended roof pitch is 4:12 without additional underlayment materials.[3].
  • Left: Example of faster asphalt shingle wear along eaves due to channeled water running down the roof.
  • Right: Severe shrinkage resulting in tearing away of entire tabs.
  • Note the exposed nail heads.
  • Water running down the roof can seep around the nails into the interior space.
  • In the United States, fiberglass-based asphalt shingles are by far the most common roofing material used for residential roofing applications.
  • In Europe, they are called bitumen roof shingles or tile strips, and are much less common.[4] They are easy to install, relatively affordable, last 20 to 60 years and are recyclable in some areas.
  • Asphalt shingles come in numerous styles and colors.
  • The protective nature of paper and fiberglass asphalt shingles primarily comes from the long-chain petroleum hydrocarbons, while wood shingles are protected by natural oils in the cellulose structure.
  • Over time in the hot sun, these oils soften and when rain falls the oils are gradually washed out of the shingles.
  • During rain, more water is channeled along eaves and complex rooflines, and these are subsequently more prone to erosion than other areas.
  • Eventually the loss of the oils causes asphalt shingle fibers to shrink and wood shingles to rot, exposing the nail heads under the shingles.
  • Once the nail heads are exposed, water running down the roof can seep into the building around the nail shank, resulting in rotting of underlying roof building materials and causing moisture damage to ceilings and paint inside.
  • Heinola Rural Parish church, in Heinola, Finland.
  • It was completed in 1755 and built most likely by August Sorsa.
  • Close-up of the wooden shingle roof.
  • The patterning is said to originate from Islamic architecture.
  • Two basic types of wood shingles are called shingles and shakes.
  • Wood shakes are typically longer and thicker than wood shingles.
  • The main difference is in how they are made, with shingles always being sawn and shakes normally being split, at least on one side.[5] Untreated wood shingles and shakes have long been known as a fire hazard and have been banned in various places, particularly in urban areas where exterior, combustible building materials contribute to devastating fires known as conflagrations.
  • Modern pressure-impregnated fire retardant treated wood shakes and shingles can achieve a Class B fire rating, and can achieve a Class A rating when used in conjunction with specially designed roof assemblies.[6].
  • The use of wooden roof shingles has existed in parts of the world with a long tradition of wooden buildings, especially Scandinavia, and Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Nearly all the houses and buildings in colonial Chiloé were built with wood, and roof shingles were extensively employed in Chilota architecture.
  • Japanese roof with shingles partly laid and the nail box.
  • Slate shingles are also called slate tiles, the usual name outside the US.
  • Slate roof shingles are relatively expensive to install but can last 80 to 400 years depending on the quality of the slate used, and how well they are maintained.
  • The material itself deteriorates only slowly, and may be recycled from one building to another.
  • The primary means of failure in a slate roof is when individual slates lose their peg attachment and begin to slide out of place.
  • This can open up small gaps above each slate.
  • A secondary mode of failure is when the slates themselves begin to break up.
  • The lower parts of a slate may break loose, giving a gap below a slate.
  • Commonly the small and stressed area above the nail hole may fail, allowing the slate to slip as before.
  • In the worst cases, a slate may simply break in half and be lost altogether.
  • A common repair to slate roofs is to apply 'torching', a mortar fillet underneath the slates, attaching them to the battens.
  • This may apply as either a repair, to hold slipping slates, or pre-emptively on construction.
  • Where slates are particularly heavy, the roof may begin to split apart along the roofline.

Cosmetic renovation costs

This usually follows rot developing and weakening the internal timbers, often as a result of poor ventilation within the roof space.

Cosmetic renovation costs
RemodelAverage cost
Painting kitchen cabinets costs$900 – $3,800
Hardwood floor refinishing costs$1,000 – $2,100
Cabinet refinishing costs$800 – $2,900
Cabinet refacing costs$4,200 – $8,100
Laminate flooring costs$1,400 – $3,400
Granite countertops costs$2,200 – $4,300

Remodeling an old house on a budget

An important aspect to slate roofs is the use of a metal flashing which will last as long as the slates.

  • Slate shingles may be cut in a variety of decorative patterns and are available in several colors.
  • Flagstone shingles are a traditional roofing material.
  • Some stone shingles are fastened in place but some simply are held by gravity, so the roof pitch cannot be too steep or the stones will slide off the roof.
  • Sandstone has also been used to make shingles. Slate roofers guild emblem as an ornament made with slate roof shingles, Meerbusch, Germany.

Remodeling return on investment

Note the hip shingles act as a ridge cap. A typical flagstone roof in Kastanitsa, Greece. A dry laid stone roof in Switzerland. Fibre cement shingles are often known by their manufacturer's name such as Eternit or Transite.

Remodeling return on investment
RemodelReturn on investment
Garage door replacement98% – 99%
Siding replacement77% – 97%
Roof replacement70% – 90%
Window replacement70% – 90%
New bathroom addition55% – 87%
New deck addition75% – 83%
Finished attic bedroom70% – 80%
Kitchen remodel54% – 80%
Living room or bedroom40% – 80%
Basement finishing54% – 70%
Whole house remodel56% – 67%
Bathroom remodel57% – 64%

Frequently asked questions

What's the difference between a house renovation and remodel?

Sometimes the fiber in the cement material was asbestos, which has been banned for health reasons since the 1980s. Removal of asbestos shingles requires extra precautions and disposal methods. Metal shingles are extremely fire resistant, so are used in fire prone areas.

How long does it take to renovate a house?

Metal shingles on St John's Church, Tzum, Netherlands 20307447 - RCE. Plastic has been used to produce imitation slate shingles. These are lightweight and durable, but combustible. Also, they are very lightweight and are one of the cheapest shingles to have installed.[7].

Time it takes to renovate a house
RemodelTime to complete
Full home renovation2 – 8 months
Minor bathroom remodel1 – 3 weeks
Full bathroom remodel2 – 12 weeks
Minor kitchen renovation1 – 2 weeks
Full kitchen remodel2 – 6 months
Roof remodeling2 – 7 days
Exterior home remodel1 – 2 weeks
Basement remodel2 – 8 weeks
Room addition4 – 8 weeks
Attic renovation8 – 10 weeks

How much does a home remodel designer or architect cost?

Cedar shingles are resistant to rot and commonly available in lengths of 18 and 24 inches (460 and 610 mm). These fade gradually from natural wood colored to a silver-like tone. Types include hand-split resawn shakes, tapersplit shakes or tapersawn shakes.

How much do home improvements or repairs cost?

Roof tiles, similar in function to shingles, but made of curved terracotta panels. ^ ab"Shingle" def. Whitney, William Dwight, and Benjamin E. The Century dictionary and cyclopedia.

New York: Century Co., 1901. Accessed 1/11/2014.

DIY costs to remodel a house yourself

^Passmore, Augustine C. Handbook of technical terms used in architecture and building and their allied trades and subjects,. London: Scott, Greenwood, and Co.;, 1904.

^Kang, Kaffee, and Rob Thallon.

  • Graphic guide to frame construction.
  • Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1998.
  • ^"The Bitumen Roofing Industry – A Global Perspective: Production, Use, Properties, Specifications and Occupational Exposure"(PDF).
  • Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  • ^"Installation, Care, and Maintenance of Wood Shake and Shingle Roofs"(PDF).
  • United States Department of Agriculture.

^"Mastering Roof Inspections: Wood Shakes and Shingles, Part 1 - InterNACHI". Retrieved 2018-06-14.

Hiring a home remodeling contractor

Retrieved 3 September 2019. Retrieved from "". Learning Objectives.

Getting house renovation quotes

Inspection Tools. Inspection Procedure. Residential Standards of Practice.

  • DoorsCommon Problems with DoorsEgress Doors.
  • Common Problems with Doors. WindowsCommon Problems with WindowsWindowsillsPuttyWeatherstrippingShuttersAwningsFogged WindowsWindow Wells.
  • Common Problems with Windows. Insulation Value of Siding. Siding Materials Chart. Solid Wood and Lumber Siding.
  • Shingles and Shakes. Particleboard Siding. Finish Problems.
  • Aluminum and Steel Siding. Grounding Metal Siding. Stucco and EIFS.
  • Asbestos Cement-Based Siding. Clay and Slate Shingles. Asphalt Shingles. Masonry Exterior Wall Covering.

Questions to ask remodeling contractors

  1. Concrete Blocks. Manufactured Stone. Load-Bearing or Veneer?
  2. Common Problems with Masonry Exterior.
  3. Foundation Cracks and Water. Inspecting the Visible Masonry and Foundation.
  4. Checking the Masonry. Masonry Foundation and Piers.
  5. Shrinkage Cracking. Sweeping or Horizontal Cracking.
  6. Above-Ground Masonry Walls. Eaves, Soffits and Fasciae.
  7. Waterproofing and Damp-Proofing.
  8. Permanent Wood Foundations.

Common Problems with Walls. Inadequate Clearance from the Roof Cover.

  • Paxton, Albert S. "2019 National Repair and Remodeling Estimator." (2019). PDF file.
  • Tyler, Mark C. "2019 National Electric Estimator." (2019). PDF file.
  • Hicks, Ray F. “2019 National Home Improvement Estimator.” (2019). PDF file.
  • Pray, Richard. "2019 National Construction Estimator." (2019). PDF file.
  • Gleason, Dennis D. “2019 National Painting Cost Estimator.” 2019. PDF file.
  • Actual Project Costs Reported By 3,130 HomeGuide Members. (2020).
  • How Long Is That Remodel Going to Take? (2018).
  • Home Renovation Tax Credit. (2020).
  • Home Remodeling Budget Calculator. (2020).
  • What's the Difference: Renovation vs. Remodel? (2019).
  • Kris Haskins. This is what a $200,000 renovation looks like. (2017).
  • Real Remodeling Costs. (2020).
  • Gorgeous $45,000 Manufactured Home Renovation. (2019).
  • Home Renovation Costs: My $58,000 and Where I Spent It. (2016).
  • How Much Does It Cost to Renovate a House? Bathroom, Kitchen, and Beyond. (2020).
  • 2020 Cost VS Value Report. (2020).
  • Hiring a Contractor. (2014).
  • Remodeling Cost for Small Apartment With Pics. (2018).
  • How Much Does It Cost To Hire A Painter? (2020).
  • How Much Does It Cost To Hire An Electrician? (2020).
  • How Much Does It Cost To Remodel A Bathroom? (2020).
  • How Much Does A Plumber Cost? (2020).
  • How Much Does It Cost To Remodel A Kitchen? (2019).
  • How Much Does It Cost To Build A Home Addition? (2019).
  • How Much Does It Cost To Finish A Basement? (2019).
  • Cost to rebuild from the studs? New construction? (2018).
  • Tear Down & Rebuild Costs. (2015).
  • Home Improvement & Repair Cost Estimator. (2020).
  • Remodeling Impact. (2019). PDF File.
  • How Much Does Landscaping Cost? (2019).
  • How Much Does It Cost To Replace Windows? (2019).
  • How Much Does A New Roof Replacement Cost? (2019).
  • How Much Does House Siding Cost to Install or Replace? (2019).
  • How Much Does Flooring Installation Cost? (2019).
Dense Vegetation. Wood and Soil Contact. Water Intrusion. Flashing of Wall Components and Moisture Problems. Understanding and Inspecting Flashing.
Kickout Flashing. Exterior Drainage Systems. Site Surface Drainage. Foundation Drainage. Roof and Surface Drainage.